Roads to Deeper European Integration

by Henrik Braconier and Mauro Pisu, Despite substantial integration, national borders still provide a large obstacle to trade in Europe. This column shows that much of these ‘iceberg costs’ can be attributed to underdeveloped infrastructure, namely roads. Improving international roadways to the level of national ones could substantially raise gains to trade.

Second Estimate 4Q2013 GDP Revised Down to 2.4%

Written by Doug Short and Steven Hansen The second estimate of fourth quarter 2013 Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is now a positive 2.4%. The market expected GDP at 2.2% to 2.8% (consensus 2.5%). This data point was 3.2% in the advance GDP estimate.