Personal Income Falls in October 2013

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Real Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE) was up whilst Real Disposable Personal Income (DPI) was down. You get the feeling from this release that the consumer went on a spending spree without the income to pay for it.

  • The market looks at current values (not real inflation adjusted) and was expecting a PCE (expenditures) rise of 0.3% (versus 0.3% actual), and a rise in DPI (income) of 0.3% to 0.5%  (versus -0.2% actual). In other words, expenditures were at expectations whilst income was well under expectations.
  • The monthly fluctuations are confusing. Looking at the 3 month trend rate of growth, income trend is relatively flat, whilst expenditures are trending up.
  • Real Personal Income is up 1.8% year-over-year, and real personal expenditures are up 2.1% year-over-year. The gap between income and expenditures opened up again this month.
  • this data is very noisy and as usual includes backward revision (detailed below) making real time analysis problematic – and the backward revisions this month are moderate.
  • Earlier this week, the second estimate of 3Q2013 GDP indicated the economy was growing at 3.6%.
  • The savings rate continues to be low, and declined marginally this month.

The inflation adjusted income and consumption are “chained”, and headline GDP is inflation adjusted.  This means the impact to GDP is best understood by looking at the chained numbers. Econintersect believes year-over-year trends are very revealing in understanding economic dynamics.

Per capita inflation adjusted expenditure has exceeded the pre-recession peak.

Seasonally and Inflation Adjusted Expenditure Per Capita

Per capita inflation adjusted income is above pre-recession levels.

Seasonally and Inflation Adjusted Income Per Capita

Backward revisions this month:

Estimates for personal income and DPI have been revised for April through September; estimates for PCE have been revised for July through September. Changes in personal income, in current-dollar and chained (2009) dollar DPI, and in current-dollar and chained (2009) dollar PCE for August and September — revised and as published in last month’s release — are shown below.

Estimates of wages and salaries were revised from April through September. The revision to second-quarter wages and salaries reflect the incorporation of the most recently available BLS tabulations of the second-quarter wages and salaries from the quarterly census of employment and wages. Revised estimates for July, August, and September reflect extrapolations from the revised second-quarter level of wages. In addition, revisions to August and September reflect revised BLS employment, hours, and earnings data for those months.

The graph below illustrates the relationship between income (DPI) and expenditures (PCE) – showing clearly income and expenditures grow at nearly the same rate over time. This month income which had caught up with expenditures, fell behind again.

Indexed to Jan 2000, Growth of Real Disposable Income (blue line) to Real Expenditures (red line)

The long term trend is that the consumer is spending more of its income – but the 2013 trend is that the consumer is spending less of its income.

Seasonally Adjusted Spending’s Ratio to Income (a declining ratio means consumer is spending less of its Income)

PCE is the spending of consumers. In the USA, the consumer is the economy. Likewise, personal income is the money consumers earn to spend. Even though most analysts concentrate on personal expenditures because GDP is based on spending, increases in personal income allow consumers the option to spend more.

There is a general correlation of PCE to GDP (PCE is a component of GDP). PCE is a fairly noisy index and subject at times to significant backward revision (see caveats below).

Seasonally and Inflation Adjusted Year-over-Year Change of Personal Consumption Expenditures (blue line) to GDP (red line)

Econintersect and GDP uses the inflation adjusted (chained) numbers. Disposable Personal Income (DPI) is the income after the taxes.

Seasonally & Inflation Adjusted Percent Change From the Previous Month – Personal Disposable Income (red line) and Personal Consumption Expenditures (blue line)

Yet year-over-year growth is not exceptional with both consumption and income below GDP growth – and income growth still lagging consumption.

Seasonally & Inflation Adjusted Year-over-Year Change – Personal Disposable Income (red line) and Personal Consumption Expenditures (blue line)

FRED Graph

The savings rate has been bouncing around – but the general trend is down. In an economy driven by consumers, a higher savings rate does not bode well for increased GDP. This is one reason GDP may not be a good single metric of economic activity. The question remains what is the optimal savings rate for the current demographics. It might be expected that as people near retirement, the savings rate rises and after people retire, savings rate falls. Econintersect is not aware of any study which documents this effect. The graph below is from BEA table 2.6. – and shows a significant fall in savings rate for January 2013 – and now a recovery is continuing.  The savings rate is now 4.8% – now down two months in a row

Personal Savings as a Percentage of Disposable Personal Income

And one look at the different price changes seen by the BEA in this PCE release versus the BEA’s GDP and BLS’s Consumer Price Index (CPI). We should note that the inflation adjustment is for PCE and Personal Income is lower than the ones used for GDP and CPI.

Year-over-Year Change – PCE’s Price Index (blue line) versus CPI-U (red line) versus GDP Deflator (green line)

Finally for recession watchers, here is the graph below, here are the elements used to mark a recession. (1) personal income less transfer payments, in real terms and (2) employment. In addition, we refer to two indicators with coverage primarily of manufacturing and goods: (3) industrial production and (4) the volume of sales of the manufacturing and wholesale-retail sectors adjusted for price changes.

If a line falls below the 0 (black line) – that sector is contracting from the previous month. Personal income is the blue line. Note – the below graph uses multipliers to make movements more obvious (ignore the value of the scale, only consider whether the graph is above [good] or below [bad] the zero line).

Month-over-Month Growth Personal Income less transfer payments (blue line), Employment (red line), Industrial Production (green line), Business Sales (orange line)

Caveats on the Use of Personal Income and Consumption Expenditure Data

PCE is a fairly noisy index and subject at times to significant backward revision. This index cannot be relied upon in real time.

This personal income and personal consumption expenditure data by itself is not a good tool to warn of an upcoming recession. Econintersect has shown that PCE is a distraction for recession watchers, with moves over a few months having a 30% accuracy of indicating a recession start, and a 70% incidence of indicating a non-recessionary event. The graph below shows the lack of correlation. Note, however, that PCE does have prolonged declines over many months associated with recessions but these long declines are not very good in “predicting” a recession until it is already underway.

Readers are warned that this article is based on seasonally adjusted data. Monthly non-adjusted data is available with a delay of several months.

Related Articles

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All Posts on Personal Income Expenditures

All Posts on Consumer Metrics

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2 replies on “Personal Income Falls in October 2013”

  1. yes Steven we do get the feeling at first that “You get the feeling from this release that the consumer went on a spending spree without the income to pay for it.” but then we realize the Super rich 1% grew GDP and profits surplus 11% in 2012 and more I believe in 2013, when the National average 2.7% meant the next lower 5%-9% won fractional and the remaining 90% just broke even of that 60% lost ground in equity accumulation. 
    A major part of the lost ground were the 60%’ers and some of the former middle class 30%’ers had debt foreclosures that netted the big boys even more surplus profits and no where to safely invest them. Thus they have created even more traps of high risk very high interest gamble investments in the likes of credit card loans that these stupid consumers use to replace the lost employment wage parity for domestic consumption. Then as the festive season comes on they borrow more on low security or because they are recovering lost equity etc., and are really setting themselves up for the new foreclosure hike that will surely strike in 2015 USA.
    In fact I find nothing  rosy in this story for USA economy 2015, they are already riding a phony bubble spending crest, and added to it all the signs point to USA dollar overvalued exchange worth, the decline in domestic consumption is real in new and old dollars, and overall USA is crashing before our eyes as they can no longer dump their machine oversupply surplus on a declining World import capacity.

  2. Dr Steven Hansen please look at 2nd chart “Seasonally and Inflation Adjusted Income Per Capita” and overlay it with chart 4 “Seasonally Adjusted Spending’s Ratio to Income (a declining ratio means consumer is spending less of its Income)” perhaps then with chart 8 “Personal Savings as a Percentage of Disposable Personal Income” the massive spikes up down or both tell something i CAN’T QUITE GRASP.

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