June 2012 CPI Essentially Unchanged

by Steven Hansen and Doug Short

The May 2012 Consumer Price Index (CPI-U) annual inflation rate was unchanged at 1.7%.  Core inflation (CPI less food and energy) eased slightly from 2.3% to 2.2% annual inflation.

The dynamics of the components are energy prices easing offset by food increases.

The Producer Price Index (released last Friday) are showing that intermediate and crude goods are deflating pointing to continued moderation of the CPI in months to come.

Percent Change Year-over-Year – Comparing PPI Finished Goods (blue line) to PPI Crude Materials (red line)

As a generalization – inflation accelerates as the economy heats up, while inflation rate falling could be an indicator that the economy is cooling. However, inflation does not correlate well to the economy – and cannot be used as a economic indicator.

First, the major inflation issue in month-over-month CPI from remains moderate upward pressure from food, but the obvious big item was used cars.

The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) was  unchanged in June on a seasonally adjusted basis, the U.S. Bureau of  Labor Statistics reported today. Over the last 12 months, the all  items index increased 1.7 percent before seasonal adjustment.

The energy index continued to fall in June, but its decline was  offset by increases in the indexes for food and all items less food  and energy. The energy index fell 1.4 percent as the gasoline index  declined for the third month in a row; other energy indexes were  mixed. The food index rose 0.2 percent after being unchanged last  month as the index for food at home turned up in June.

The index for all items less food and energy rose 0.2 percent in  June, the fourth consecutive such increase. The shelter index posted  its smallest increase since September, the index for used cars and  trucks was unchanged after a series of increases, and the index for  airline fares declined. However, the index for medical care posted its largest increase since 2010 and the indexes for apparel and  recreation both rose substantially in June.

The 12-month change in the index for all items was 1.7 percent in  June, the same figure as in May. The energy index declined 3.9  percent over the last 12 months, while the food index rose 2.7  percent. The index for all items less food and energy rose 2.2  percent for the 12 months ending June, a slight decline from the 2.3  percent figure in May.

Historically, the CPI-U general index tends to correlate over time with the CPI-U’s food index. The current situation is putting an upward pressure on the CPI countering the downward pressure on the CPI by the Producer Price Index.

CPI-U Index compared to the Food sub-Index of CPI-U

Notice the gap in the above graphic between the CPI and Food – historically this gap has always closed when the knock-on effect from higher food prices into other CPI components moderates.

The market expected month-over-month CPI-U growth at 0.1 (versus 0.0% actual), with the core inflation expectations at 0.2% (versus 0.2% actual).

The Federal Reserve has argued that energy inflation automatically slows the economy without having to intervene with its monetary policy tools. This is the primary reason the Fed wants to exclude energy from analysis of consumer price increases (the inflation rate).

/images/z cpi1.png

And one look at the different price changes seen by the BEA in this PCE release versus the BEA’s GDP and BLS’s Consumer Price Index (CPI).

Year-over-Year Change – PCE’s Price Index (blue line) versus CPI-U (red line) versus GDP Deflator (green line)

Detailed Analysis

The Bureau of Labor Statistics released the CPI data for last month this morning. Year-over-year Headline CPI came in at 1.66%, which the BLS rounds to 1.7%, essentially unchanged from 1.70% (not rounded) last month. Year-over year-Core CPI (ex Food and Energy) came in at 2.22%, which the BLS rounds to 2.0%, down fractionally from 2.26% (rounded to 2.3%) last month.

The first chart is an overlay of Headline CPI and Core CPI (the latter excludes Food and Energy) since 1957. The second chart gives a close-up of the two since 2000.

On the next chart I’ve highlighted the 2% level, which is generally understood to be the Fed’s target for core inflation. Here we see more easily see the widening spread between headline and core CPI since late 2010, a pattern that began changing last October as headline inflation declined while core continued to rise, although it has flattened out in 2012.

Federal Reserve policy, which focuses on core inflation, and especially the core Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE), will see that the latest core CPI is fractionally above the target range, even though the more volatile headline inflation has fallen below two percent.

Caveats on the Use of the Consumer Price Index

Econintersect has performed several tests on this series and finds it fairly representative of price changes (inflation). However, the headline rate is an average – and will not correspond to the price changes seen by any specific person or on a particular subject.

Although the CPI represents the costs of some mythical person. Each of us need to provide a multiplier to the BLS numbers to make this index representative of our individual situation. This mythical person envisioned spending pattern would be approximately:

The average Joe Sixpack budgets to spend his entire paycheck or retirement income – so even small changes have a large impact to a budget.

The graph above demonstrates that fuel costs, medical care, and school costs are increasing at a much faster pace than the headline CPI-U.

The Consumer Price Index contains hundreds of sub-indices which should be used to show price changes for a particular subject.

Because of the nuances in determining the month-over-month index values, the year-over-year or annual change in the Consumer Price Index is preferred for comparisons.

Econintersect has analyzed both food and energy showing that food moves synchronously with core.

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