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posted on 10 July 2017

July 10, 2017 Weather and Climate Report - Heat Heads North - Monsoon AWOL

Written by Sig Silber

If the NOAA forecast works out as issued today, CONUS will have weather over the next couple of weeks that is fairly typical for this time of the year with the Southwest hot anomaly shifting to the north. Unfortunately, it is not clear that Nature has fully signed off on this forecast. Tonight we also discuss the "Other Monsoon" i.e. the South American version of the North American Monsoon. 


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First an update on the Southwest Monsoon. It has been slow to get started but the condition have improved and it could get going soon. But the NOAA Climate Prediction Center in College Park Maryland and the local forecasters in the states most impacted by the Monsoon have slightly different ideas on the probabilities of exceeding precipitation levels normally associated with the Monsoon in the near term.

Current Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies Location of Hawaiian High three days in the future
July 9th SST Anamalies July 9, 2017 3 day out surface air pressure

 

The water in the Sea of Cortez (the preferred name for this water body by John Steinbeck)  or Gulf of California if you prefer that also acceptable name was cool and now is warm. The Gulf of Mexico is also a bit warm. The Hawaiian High had been tardy re moving into its summer position but it is there now. So the Southwest Monsoon can fire up. There is no surge indicated but the Southwest should be getting cooler and might be getting wetter.

But there is the question of what impact if any Eugene will have on the situation.  I suspect that the track of Eugene is a result of current conditions rather than a major impact on these conditions. An Easterly Wave is forecast to enter Mexico from the Gulf of Mexico and that most likely will impede the Monsoon Onset in New Mexico but may be a boost to it in Arizona and Southern California.

Huricane Eugene July 2017

Today I want to review an oldie (2005) but goodie article about the twin Monsoons that impact the Americas. There are many more recent articles. The numbers of papers on the North American Monsoon is very large. Here is a more recent (2012) and very related paper on the South American Monsoon.

The American Monsoon Systems

C. Roberto Mechoso*, Andrew W. Robertson**, Chester F. Ropelewski**,  and Alice M. Grimm*** *Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, USA **International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA ***Department of Physics, Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

Abstract

This paper examines similarities and differences among major features of the North and South American monsoon systems [Editor's Note: Defined elsewhere in the article as NAMS and SAMS]. Over both North and South America the summertime circulation shows upper-level anticyclone/low-level heat low structures. These develop at different distances from the equator. It is argued that ascent to the east where convective and subtropical convergence zones develop, and subsidence over the cool waters of the eastern Pacific where stratocumulus decks provide a radiative heat sink to the tropical atmosphere are integral and unifying aspects of both monsoon systems. The intraseasonal and interannual variability of the systems are contrasted. The reported links between anomalies in soil conditions and sea surface temperatures are marginal, and consistently long-range predictability is low. Ropelewski et al. (2004) and Grimm et al. (2004) focus on each of the American monsoon systems in companion papers.

Monsoon NAMS versus SAMS Location

Obviously NAMS and SAMS occur at different times of the year and "A" anticyclone shown on the map (The Four Corners High) is clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and (the Bolivian High) counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Also notice that NAMS is at about 30N while SAMS is at about 15S  i.e. closer to the Equator.

Monsoon NAMS versus SAMS Walker Circulation

In both cases convection is centered over the Central Mountain Chain. But the oddity is that for South America it is the Andes where SAMS is centered and for North America it is the Sierra Madre where NAMS is centered in Sonora Mexico. When the U.S. seized Northern Mexico it also appropriated the Sonoran Monsoon or at least the part that sometimes intruded into CONUS and it now is called the North American Monsoon, or the Southwest Monsoon, or the Arizona Monsoon.  
Also note there are a pair of Convection zones for each Monsoon. For NAMS, the Sierra Madre is the primary zone and an area south of but still impacting the U.S. Southeast is the secondary zone. For SAMS, the Mountains are the secondary zone and Bolivia and Central Brazil to the east is the primary area for convection/precipitation..

Monsoon NAMS versus SAMS surges

The two monsoons both are characterized by surges of moisture causing more intense precipitation. There are many different causes of this one being the MJO. For NAMS, the location of the Four Corners High determines the impact of such a surge arriving from the Pacific Ocean or the Gulf of California. There can be surges arriving from the East and the impacts would be the opposite.

Monsoon SAMS surge pattern

Some know what the ITCZ is namely where the Tropical convection is most intense and the ITCZ varies seasonally but is generally near the Equator. Few in the U.S. know what the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) is. This is a slight difference between the two Monsoons but there is the equivalent of the SACZ in the Northern Hemisphere also and it impacts the U.S. Southeast but it is not discussed very much.

 

NOAA JAS 2017 Precipitation Forecast JAMSTEC JJA 2017 Precipitation Forecast
NOAA JAS 2017 Precipitation Forecast JAMSTEC 2017 Monsoon Forecast

 

The graphics above show the most recent Seasonal Forecasts from our June 17, 2017 Seasonal Outlook Update which include the NAMS area. Remember these are anomalies so they show the deviation from the norm. With respect to this discussion, what is of interest is the Monsoon states and others positively or negatively correlated to the Monsoon. Notice that NOAA forecast an average NAMS and JAMSTEC forecast a sub-average NAMS especially for New Mexico. It is early but so far it is working out that way with JAMSTEC perhaps having the edge re calling the situation but it is very early in the Monsoon Season.
There is a dilemma in that JAMSTEC appears to have projected the Monsoon better than NOAA but both NOAA and JAMSTEC and particularly JAMSTEC seem to have been mistaken re an El Nino developing. This raises the question of credibility of the JAMSTEC forecast re the Monsoon. But given the small impact of ENSO on NAMS and the timing of the JAMSTEC project for an El Nino it seems that their forecast should be considered as probably displaying some skill re the forecast of this summer's NAMS.

Here are two related quotes from the article.

The continental-scale pattern of NAMS interannual variability shows that anomalously wet (dry) summers in the southwest U.S. tend to be accompanied by similar conditions over the southeast U.S and by dry (wet) summers in the Great Plains of North America. The SAMS exhibits a similar type of behavior, with a dipolar relationship between precipitation over the SACZ and over southeastern South America. Warm seasons with an active SACZ tend to be accompanied by dry conditions in southeastern South America, and vice-versa, although ENSO effects modulate this tendency.

This is similar but more complete.

Returning to the issue of meridional extent of the American monsoons, the alignment of the continents could potentially allow both NAMS and SAMS to extend far poleward, and there is evidence that the SACZ and its North American counterpart on the eastern side of the continents extend into the midlatitudes in both cases. The monsoons extend poleward until the midlatitudes dynamical regime takes over, in which horizontal temperature advection by the westerlies is able to balance surface heat flux.

In addition to the planetary-scale wave dynamics discussed above, both American monsoon systems have smaller-scale features embedded within them, again with baroclinic Rossby wave dynamics. Within NAMS, there is an inverse relationship between precipitation in the core NAMS region/southeastern U.S. and that over the Great Plains of North America. Similarly, within SAMS the activity of the SACZ and precipitation over southeastern South America are inversely correlated. In both cases, to balance a stronger zone of regional convergence requires a regional strengthening of the upper-level anticyclone/low-level heat low structure that is then superposed on the planetary scale monsoon circulation. The associated scale interactions remain largely unexplored, but Fig. 4 presents an example of their importance.

Net net, the two monsoons are the major predictable determinant of summer weather for North America and South America especially for the low and mid Latitudes.

The impacts may be more noticeable in the primary areas but they impact weather almost everywhere. Obviously for North America, hurricanes are a big factor but they are not nearly as predictable. This article predates the discovery of the California Nino phenomenon which creates interannual variability. The concept of "memory" is very important re understanding the Monsoon. The ENSO cycle impacts both NAMS and SAMS but tends to be at its peak during SAMS which is a December to February event in the west (which often is the peak months for an El Nino) and becomes a March to May event further north and east. The AMO and PDO impact NAMS and their Southern Hemisphere counterparts impact SAMS. But it may even be that the North Atlantic also impacts SAMS.  This shows the extent to which weather patterns are connected and can even impact weather in the opposite Hemisphere.

A. Focus on Alaska and CONUS (all U.S.. except Hawaii)

First Let us focus on the Current (Right Now to 5 Days Out) Weather Situation.

Water Vapor.

This view of the past 24 hours provides a lot of insight as to what is happening.

Eastern Pacific Animation

Below is the same graphic as above but without the animation to show the current situation with respect to water vapor imagery for North America. It also covers more of CONUS.

 Water Vapor Imagery

Tonight, Monday evening July 10, 2017, as I am looking at the above graphic, I see limited activity in the Southeast and Great Lakes area. The Monsoon is trying to gain traction and it is clear that for now it is oriented more towards Arizona than New Mexico.

Looking at the current activity of the Jet Stream.

Not all weather is controlled by the Jet Stream (which is a high altitude phenomenon) but it does play a major role in steering storm systems especially in the winter The sub-Jet Stream level intensity winds shown by the vectors in this graphic are also very important in understanding the impacts north and south of the Jet Stream which is the higher-speed part of the wind circulation and is shown in gray on this map. In some cases however a Low-Pressure System becomes separated or "cut off" from the Jet Stream. In that case it's movements may be more difficult to predict until that disturbance is again recaptured by the Jet Stream. This usually is more significant for the lower half of CONUS with the cutoff lows being further south than the Jet Stream. Some basic information on how to interpret the impact of jet streams on weather can be found here and here.

Current Jet Stream

One sees the current jet stream above. It is again way north and in most places it is in Canada.

 This graphic provides a good indication of where the moisture is. It is a bit different than just moisture imagery as it is quantitative.

 Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes, Scripps/UCSD.

This graphic is about Atmospheric Rivers i.e. thick concentrated movements of water moisture. More explanation on Atmospheric Rivers can be found by clicking here or if you want more theoretical information by clicking here. The idea is that we have now concluded that moisture often moves via narrow but deep channels in the atmosphere (especially when the source of the moisture is over water) rather than being very spread out. This raises the potential for extreme precipitation events.
This evening we see not very much. It is again more interesting perhaps in Venezuela. You can see former Hurricane now Tropical Storm Eugene headed out to sea.

You can convert the above graphic in to a flexible forecasting tool by clicking here.  One can obtain views of different geographical areas by clicking here

60 Hour Forecast.

Here is a national animation of weather fronts and precipitation forecasts with four 6-hour projections of the conditions that will apply covering the next 24 hours and a second day of two 12-hour projections the second of which is the forecast for 48 hours out and to the extent it applies for 12 hours, this animation is intended to provide coverage out to 60 hours. Beyond 60 hours, additional maps are available at links provided below.

current highs and lows

The explanation for the coding used in these maps, i.e. the full legend, can be found here although it includes some symbols that are no longer shown in the graphic because they are implemented by color coding.

Tropical Activity

But let's not forget the upcoming Hurricane Season. It may be getting off to an early start. So we need to start watching this graphic again.

Eastern Pacific Two Day Tropical Weather Outlook

When there is activity and I have not provided the specific links to the storm of interest, one can obtain that information at this link.  At this point in time, none of the "X"s shown are expected to impact CONUS. If that changes we will provide an update. At the beginning of this report, there is a tracking map for Eugene.

U.S.  3 Day to  7 Day Forecasts

Below is a graphic which highlights the forecasted surface Highs and the Lows re air pressure on Day 6. The Day 3 forecast can be found here. I used to present the Day 3 with a link to Day 6 but showing Day 6 may be more useful.

Day 6 Weather Forecast

When I look at this Day 6 forecast, it is certainly no longer a Winter Pattern. The Aleutian Low has turned from a semi-permanent feature into a train of Lows which one expects this time of the year. Remember, this is a forecast for Day 6 not the current situation.
The High Pressure off of the West Coast, the familiar RRR or more properly called the Eastern Pacific Semi-tropical High or the Hawaiian High, is large with surface central air pressure of 1028 hPa. Remember this is the Day 6 pattern not the current pattern. Also notice that this is the summer position of that semipermanent High (shifted to the north). Moisture entering from the Pacific related to the Polar Jet Stream is less likely with this pattern. At some point, the heating of the land will draw in moisture from the tropics i.e. a Monsoon. It is not forecast to be a particularly strong Monsoon this year but the onset is "predicted" to be very soon.
I provided this  K - 12 write up that provides a simple explanation on the importance of semipermanent Highs and Lows and another link that discussed possible changes in the patterns of these highs and lows which could be related to a Climate Shift (cycle) in the Pacific or Global Warming. Remember this is a forecast for Day 6. It is not the current situation.

Now looking at the Day 5 Jet Stream Forecast.

Jet Stream Five Days Out .

This is a Day 5 forecast by one model. It is similar to the current pattern. Remember this is a H3 view meaning a view at 30,000 feet which is about six miles high.

Putting the Jet Stream into Motion and Looking Forward a Few Days Also

To see how the pattern is projected to evolve,  please click here. In addition to the shaded areas which show an interpretation of the Jet Stream, one can also see the wind vectors (arrows) at the 300 Mb level.

This longer animation shows how the jet stream is crossing the Pacific and when it reaches the U.S. West Coast is going every which way.

When we discuss the jet stream and for other reasons, we often discuss different layers of the atmosphere. These are expressed in terms of the atmospheric pressure above that layer. It is kind of counter-intuitive to me. The below table may help the reader translate air pressure to the usual altitude and temperature one might expect at that level of air pressure. It is just an approximation but useful.

air pressure and altitude
Re the above, H8 is a frequently used abbreviation for the height of the 850 millibar level, H7 is the 700 mb level, H5 is the 500 mb level, H3 is the 300 mb level. So if you see those abbreviations in a weather forecast you will know what they are talking about.

Click here to gain access to a very flexible computer graphic. You can adjust what is being displayed by clicking on "earth" adjusting the parameters and then clicking again on "earth" to remove the menu. Right now it is set up to show the 500 hPa wind patterns which is the main way of looking at synoptic weather patterns. This amazing graphic covers North and South America. It could be included in the Worldwide weather forecast section of this report but it is useful here re understanding the wind circulation patterns.

You can enlarge the below daily (days 3 - 7) weather maps for CONUS by clicking on Day 3 or Day 4 or Day 5 or Day 6 or Day 7. These maps auto-update so whenever you click on them they will be forecast maps for the number of days in the future shown.

Short term forecasts

Here is the seven-day cumulative precipitation forecast. More information is available here.

Seven Day WPC Quantitative precipitation forecast

We see a wet pattern that is mostly east. The wettest area is offshore. We also see the forecast track of the Southwest Monsoon having impacts over a large area. I am less confident than NOAA in that part of the forecast.

The map below is the mid-atmosphere 7-Day chart rather than the surface highs and lows and weather features. In some cases it provides a clearer less confusing picture as it shows only the major pressure gradients. This graphic auto-updates so when you look at it you will see NOAA's latest thinking. The speed at which these troughs and ridges travel across the nation will determine the timing of weather impacts. This graphic auto-updates I think every six hours and it changes a lot. Because "Thickness Lines" are shown by those green lines on this graphic, it is a good place to define "Thickness" and its uses. The 540 Level general signifies equal chances for snow at sea level locations.Thickness of 600 or more suggests very intensely heat and fire danger.

7 Day 500 MB Geopotential Forecast

Thinking about clockwise movements around High Pressure Systems and counter- clockwise movements around Low Pressure Systems provides a lot of information.
What we see for Day 7 is the Four Corners High with the High moving around a lot. Six hours ago the forecast was for it to be on Day 7 much further west. What may be more important is the shape and I am not sure the shape is shown accurately in this graphic. When elongated west to east it is not as effective at drawing moist air north to the west of the High. Draw a circle around that H and add an arrow pointing clockwise and you can determine the 10,000 feet wind directions. The big question is where those winds either cross water bodies or bring up moist subtropical air from Mexico. There is also a North Central Ridge and a Great Lakes Trough rapidly becoming an East Coast Trough and sort of a West Coast Trough. It looks a lot like it did last Monday.
Remember this is a forecast for Day 7. Note the 540 Thickness Line re the above discussion of thickness and snow likelihood. Thickness lines near or over 600 tend to suggest very warm temperatures. Sometimes Meteorologists work with the 500 mb heights which provides somewhat similar readings to the "Thickness" lines but IMO provide slightly less specific information. The Southwest Heat Wave appears to have relented to some extent as more clouds have moved in.

Four- Week Outlook

I use "EC" in my discussions although NOAA sometimes uses "EC" (Equal Chances) and sometimes uses "N" (Normal) to pretty much indicate the same thing although "N" may be more definitive. 

First - Temperature

I am starting with a summary of small images of the three short-term maps. This summary provides a quick look. I could have made it so you could click and enlarge the small images but for the moment I prefer that you go past the summary for the larger versions because if I set up such links, the chances increase that you will not back out of the link properly and get lost. For most people the summary with the small images will be sufficient. Following the graphic with the three small images, you can find the larger maps and a discussion and for reference purposes I then also provide the forecast map for the current or soon to be current full month and the three-month forecast map. These are issued and updated less frequently than the first three maps shown.

mall Images of Temperature Maps
6 to 10 Days 8 to 14 Days Weeks 3 and 4
6 to 10 Day 8 - 14 Weeks 3 and 4
The above shows the progression of forecasts from six days out through four weeks out. Larger maps with discussion appear below. But this set of three maps paints a pretty good picture of what the forecast is.

Now the larger maps followed by a discussion that describes what is happening and any inconsistences that I see.

6 - 10 Day Temperature Outlook issued today (Note the NOAA Level of Confidence in the Forecast Released on July 10, 2017 was 3 out of 5)

6 - 10 Day Temperature Outlook

8 - 14 Day Temperature Outlook issued today (Note the NOAA Level of Confidence in the Forecast Released on July 10, 2017 was 3 out of 5).

 

8-14 Day Temperature Outlook

Looking further out.

Experimental Week 3-4 Temperature Outlook

Consolidation of 6 - 10, 8 - 14 and Experimental Week 3-4 Temperature Forecasts

Interpreted on July 10, 2017

July 16 to July 24 July 22 to August 4

Days 6 - 10: Most of CONUS and Alaska is warm. There is a small EC and partially cool area where the Monsoon is forecast to be getting started: rain cools things down. There is another EC area in the Northeast. There is a cool anomaly centered over Arkansas.

There is a cool anomaly that extends from the Mississippi River to the East Coast that covers approximately the middle 3rd of CONUS east of the Mississippi. The Southern Tier, Far West and Northern Tier west of the Great Lakes plus New England are warm. From the cool anomaly west it is EC within the warm anomaly that creates a warm edge to the combination of the EC and cool anomaly. Western Alaska and the Panhandle are warm. The transition to the pattern shown in the Week 3 - 4 Forecast from the pattern shown in the 8-14 Day forecast appears to be improbable especially for the Eastern Half of CONUS.

Week 2:  As the period evolves, the pattern does not change very much.
Remember the Week 3-4 Experimental Outlook was issued last Friday and I am looking at the 6 - 10 and 8 - 14 day forecasts issued today i.e. Monday. So that explains the overlap of dates. Remember that the Week 3 - 4 Forecast covers two weeks so it can appear to not mesh perfectly but actually do so over the two-week period. For all three time periods, in between the cool and warm anomalies it is usually EC i.e. the boundary is usually not sharp.

Reference Forecasts Full Month and Three Months.

Below is the Temperature Outlook for the month shown in the Legend. This map is first issued on the Third Thursday of the Month for the following month and then updated on the last day of the month. The 6 - 10 day and 8 - 14 Day update daily and the Week 3/4 Map Updates every Friday so usually these are more up-to-date.  Note that the three maps shown at the beginning of this discussion on temperature may cover a slightly different time period since they update as the month progresses and the map below covers a particular month shown in the Legend. It is useful if one wants to understand how that month is forecast to play out.

July Temperature Outlook Updated on June 30, 2017

Here is the Temperature Outlook issued on the date and for the three-month period shown in the Map Legend. Again this is provided for reference only. It is the same map that is included in our Saturday night report that follows the NOAA third Thursday of the month Seasonal Outlook Update. It provides a longer time frame than the above maps. It uses a totally different methodology as it is not possible to use the dynamical models to project out three months. The dynamical models work by figuring out how the current conditions will evolve over a fairly short period of time. To look out three months or longer the approach is more statistical using the forecasted ENSO Phase and Climate Trends.

The theory behind using dynamical models for short-term forecasts (6  10 Days, 8 - 14 Days, and recently Weeks 3-4) and statistical models (Monthly and Three-Months) for longer-term forecasts makes perfect sense but sometimes we see that the short term forecasts and then the actuals do not match the statistical forecasts very well. This tells us that either the statistical forecasts were based on incorrect assumptions or that the actual weather patterns are different from what we might have expected.

JAS 2017 Temperature Outlook Issued on June 15, 2017

Now - Precipitation

I am starting with a summary of small images of the three short-term maps. This summary provides a quick look. I could have made it so you could click and enlarge the small images but for the moment I prefer that you go past the summary for the larger versions because if I set up such links, the chances increase that you will not back out of the link properly and get lost. For most people, the summary with the small images will be sufficient. Following the graphic with the three small images, you can find the larger maps and a discussion and for reference purposes I then also provide the forecast map for the current or soon to be current full month and the three-month forecast map. These are issued and updated less frequently than the first three maps shown.

Small Images of Precipitation Maps
6 to 10 Day 8 to 14 Day Weeks 3 and 4
6 to 10 Day 8 - 14 Weeks 3 and 4
The above shows the progression of forecasts from six days out through four weeks out. Larger maps with discussion appear below. But this set of three maps paints a pretty good picture of what the forecast is.

Now the larger maps followed by a discussion that describes what is happening and any inconsistencies that I see.

6 - 10 Day Precipitation Outlook Issued Today (Note the NOAA Level of Confidence in the Forecast Released on July 10, 2017 was 3 out of 5)

6 - 10 Day Precipitation Outlook

8 - 14 Day Precipitation Outlook Issued Today (Note the NOAA Level of Confidence in the Forecast Released on July 10, 2017 was 3 out of 5)

Current 8 - 14 Day Precipitation Outlook

Looking further out.

Weeks 3 and 4 Experimental Forecast..

Consolidation of 6 - 10, 8 - 14, and Week 3-4 Precipitation Forecasts

Interpreted on July 10, 2017

July 16 to July 24  July 22 to August 4, 2017
Days 6 -10: Generally for CONUS it is dry in the north and wet in the South with the Monsoon probably the key driver. Alaska is mostly wet but EC towards the south. NOAA is quite bullish on how far the Monsoon will carry precipitation to the north.

For CONUS, the Northwest, extreme Southern Alaska and the Panhandle are dry.  A wet anomaly is centered on The Four Corners but does not include southern New Mexico and Southern Arizona. There is a wet anomaly all along the Gulf of Mexico which includes all of Florida.

The transition to the pattern shown in the Week 3 - 4 Forecast from the pattern shown in the 8-14 Day forecast appears to be somewhat feasible but with less area shown as anomalies than one might expect. .

Week 2: The East Coast has more area to the north shown as dry and less to the south as wet. The Alaska wet anomaly becomes more north and west oriented.

Remember the Week 3-4 Experimental Outlook was issued last Friday and I am looking at the 6 - 10 and 8 - 14 day forecasts issued today i.e. Monday. So that explains the overlap of dates. Remember that the Week 3 - 4 Forecast covers two weeks so it can appear to not mesh perfectly but actually do so over the two-week period. In between the dry and wet anomalies, it is usually EC i.e. the boundary is usually not sharp.

Reference Forecasts Full Month and Three Months.

Below is the Precipitation Outlook for the month shown in the Legend. This map is first issued on the Third Thursday of the Month for the following month and then updated on the last day of the month. The 6 - 10 day and 8 - 14 Day update daily and the Week 3/4 Map Updates every Friday so usually these are more up to date. Note that the three maps shown at the beginning of this discussion about precipitation may cover a slightly different time period since they update as the month progresses and the map below covers a particular month shown in the Legend. It is useful if one wants to understand how that month is forecast to play out.

July 2017 Precipitation Outlook Updated on June 30, 2017

Below is the Precipitation Outlook issued on the date and for the three-month period shown in the Map Legend. Again, this is provided for reference only. It is the same map that is included in our Saturday night report that follows the NOAA third Thursday of the month Seasonal Outlook Update. It provides a longer time frame than the above maps. It uses a totally different methodology as it is not possible to use the dynamical models to project out three months. The dynamical models work by figuring out how the current conditions will evolve over a fairly short period of time. To look out three months or longer, the approach is more statistical using the forecasted ENSO Phase and Climate Trends.

The theory behind using dynamical models for short-term forecasts (6 - 10 Days, 8 - 14 Days and recently Weeks 3-4) and statistical models for longer-term forecasts (Month and three months) makes perfect sense but sometimes we see that the short-term forecasts and then the actuals do not match the statistical forecasts very well. This tells us that either the statistical forecasts were based on incorrect assumptions or that the actual weather patterns are different from what we might have expected.

JAS 2017 Precipitation Outlook Issued on June 15, 2017

Here is the NOAA discussion released today July 10, 2017.

6-10 DAY OUTLOOK FOR JUL 16 - 20 2017

TODAY'S AVAILABLE MODELS ARE IN FAIR AGREEMENT ON THE PREDICTED MID-LEVEL CIRCULATION PATTERN OVER NORTH AMERICA. TROUGHS ARE PREDICTED TO THE WEST OF ALASKA, OFF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST COAST, AND OVER THE NORTHEAST CONUS AND  QUEBEC. A RIDGE IS PREDICTED GENERALLY OVER CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA. THE ECMWF ENSEMBLE MEAN AND THE LATEST HIGH RESOLUTION ECMWF MODEL RUN PREDICT ABOVE NORMAL 500-HPA HEIGHTS, ASSOCIATED WITH THE RIDGE, TO EXTEND FROM THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST ACROSS THE NORTHERN CONUS INTO THE NORTHEAST, WHILE THE NCEP GEFS AND ENVIRONMENT CANADA ENSEMBLE MEANS INDICATE POSITIVE HEIGHT ANOMALIES CENTERED FURTHER WEST OVER THE NORTHERN PLAINS AND NEAR NORMAL 500-HPA HEIGHTS OVER THE NORTHEAST. 500-HPA HEIGHT ANOMALIES ARE NEAR TO BELOW NORMAL ACROSS THE SOUTHERN U.S. FROM SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA TO THE CAROLINAS IN ALL ENSEMBLE MEAN FORECASTS AND THE MANUAL BLEND. THE MOST RECENT HIGH RESOLUTION RUNS OF THE NCEP AND ECMWF MODELS ARE IN BETTER AGREEMENT WITH THE ECMWF ENSEMBLE MEAN LOCATION OF THE RIDGE OVER CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA, SO THIS ENSEMBLE MEAN WAS GIVEN THE GREATEST WEIGHT IN THE MANUAL 500-HPA HEIGHT BLEND. IN THE MANUAL BLEND, FORECAST HEIGHTS ARE ABOVE NORMAL OVER MOST OF ALASKA, BECOMING NEAR NORMAL ALONG THE NORTHERN COAST AND OVER THE SOUTHERN ALASKA PANHANDLE. 

RIDGING AND ABOVE NORMAL MID-TROPOSPHERIC HEIGHTS ACROSS MUCH OF THE NORTHERN CONUS LEAD TO ENHANCED PROBABILITIES OF ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES FOR MOST OF THE NORTHERN CONUS, EXCLUDING THE NORTHEAST WHERE BELOW OR NEAR NORMAL  TEMPERATURES ARE MOST LIKELY UNDER A RELATIVE TROUGH AND NORTHERLY FLOW. ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE MOST LIKELY ACROSS MOST OF THE SOUTHERN CONUS AS WELL, EXCEPT FOR PARTS OF ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO WHERE ENHANCED MONSOONAL PRECIPITATION LEADS TO GREATER CHANCES OF BELOW NORMAL TEMPERATURES. BELOW NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE ALSO MOST LIKELY IN AN AREA CENTERED AROUND ARKANSAS,  WHERE THE LIKELIHOOD OF ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE DECREASED AHEAD OF THE PREDICTED RIDGE. ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE MOST LIKELY FOR SOUTHERN ALASKA UNDER PREDICTED ABOVE NORMAL 500-HPA HEIGHTS. 

A LARGE AREA OF ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION IS INDICATED FOR THE WESTERN CONUS WITH ENHANCED MONSOONAL FLOW OF MOISTURE TO THE WEST OF THE RIDGE, SUPPORTED BY PRECIPITATION TOOLS FROM EACH OF THE AVAILABLE ENSEMBLE MODELS. BELOW NORMAL PRECIPITATION IS MOST LIKELY OUTSIDE OF THIS REGION IN THE WEST AND ACROSS THE CENTRAL AND NORTHERN PLAINS INTO THE GREAT LAKES REGION, OHIO VALLEY, AND THE NORTHEAST, UNDER ABOVE NORMAL HEIGHTS AND AHEAD OF THE PREDICTED RIDGE. ABOVE  NORMAL PRECIPITATION IS MOST LIKELY FROM TEXAS ACROSS THE GULF COAST STATES AND  SOUTHEAST, RELATED TO SEASONAL CONVECTIVE ACTIVITY NORTH OF THE GULF OF MEXICO.  ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION IS MOST LIKELY FOR NORTHERN ALASKA, AHEAD OF THE PREDICTED TROUGH LOCATED TO THE WEST. 

FORECAST CONFIDENCE FOR THE 6-10 DAY PERIOD: ABOUT AVERAGE, 3 OUT OF 5, DUE TO ONLY FAIR AGREEMENT AMONG MODEL TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION TOOLS. 

8-14 DAY OUTLOOK FOR JUL 18 - 24 2017 

MODEL FORECASTS FOR THE WEEK 2 PERIOD ARE AGAIN IN FAIR AGREEMENT, PREDICTING A CIRCULATION PATTERN THAT IS SIMILAR TO THE 6-10 DAY PERIOD FORECAST. AGAIN THE CIRCULATION OF THE ECMWF ENSEMBLE MEAN INDICATES LARGER POSITIVE HEIGHT ANOMALIES OVER THE EASTERN CONUS, WHILE THE NCEP GEFS ENSEMBLE MEAN INDICATES GREATER POSITIVE ANOMALIES TO THE WEST AND MORE OF A TROUGH OVER THE EASTERN CONUS. THE ECMWF ENSEMBLE WAS AGAIN WEIGHTED MORE THAN THE NCEP GEFS OR ENVIRONMENT CANADA ENSEMBLES. THE MANUAL 500-HPA HEIGHT BLEND IS GENERALLY  SIMILAR TO THE BLEND FOR THE 6-10 DAY PERIOD, HOWEVER ANOMALIES ARE WEAKER AS  UNCERTAINTY HAS INCREASED. 

ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES CONTINUE TO BE MOST LIKELY ACROSS MOST OF THE CONUS IN THE WEEK 2 PERIOD WITH THE PREDICTED RIDGE OVER CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA DOMINATING THE FORECAST. A SMALL AREA OF ENHANCED PROBABILITIES OF BELOW NORMAL  TEMPERATURES IS INDICATED FOR THE SOUTHWEST, WITH INCREASED MONSOONAL  PRECIPITATION. A WEAKNESS IN THE PROBABILITIES OF ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES IS INDICATED FROM NORTHERN TEXAS, ACROSS THE CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI AND TENNESSEE VALLEYS, AND INTO THE CAROLINAS, ON THE NORTHERN EDGE OF ENHANCED CONVECTIVE  PRECIPITATION. 

 ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION IS INDICATED FOR THE SOUTHERN PLAINS AND ALONG THE GULF COAST, SUPPORTED BY THE REFORECAST CALIBRATED PRECIPITATION FORECASTS OF THE ECMWF AND THE GEFS ENSEMBLES. ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION IS AGAIN MOST LIKELY FOR A LARGE AREA OF THE WESTERN CONUS, WHERE ENHANCED MONSOONAL MOISTURE IS PREDICTED TO BRING PRECIPITATION TO MUCH OF THE REGION. ABOVE NORMAL PRECIPITATION IS MOST LIKELY FOR WESTERN ALASKA AHEAD OF THE PREDICTED TROUGH TO THE WEST. 

FORECAST CONFIDENCE FOR THE 8-14 DAY PERIOD IS: ABOUT AVERAGE, 3 OUT OF 5, DUE  TO FAIR AGREEMENT AMONG MODEL TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION TOOLS, WITH  INCREASING UNCERTAINTY AND DECREASING PROBABILITIES AT LONGER LEADS. 

THE NEXT SET OF LONG-LEAD MONTHLY AND SEASONAL OUTLOOKS WILL BE RELEASED ON  JULY 20

Some might find this analysis which you need to click to read interesting as the organization which prepares it focuses on the Pacific Ocean and looks at things from a very detailed perspective and their analysis provides a lot of information on the history and evolution of ENSO events.

Analogs to the Outlook.

Now let us take a detailed look at the "Analogs" which NOAA provides related to the 5 day period centered on 3 days ago and the 7 day period centered on 4 days ago. "Analog" means that the weather pattern then resembles the recent weather pattern and was used in some way to predict the 6 - 14 day Outlook.

Here are today's analogs in chronological order although this information is also available with the analog dates listed by the level of correlation. I find the chronological order easier for me to work with. There is a second set of analogs associated with the Outlook but I have not been regularly analyzing this second set of information. The first set which is what I am using today applies to the 5 and 7 day observed pattern prior to today. The second set, which I am not using, relates to the correlation of the forecasted outlook 6 - 10 days out with similar patterns that have occurred in the past during the dates covered by the 6 - 10 Day Outlook. The second set of analogs may also be useful information but they put the first set of analogs in the discussion with the second set available by a link so I am assuming that the first set of analogs is the most meaningful and I find it so.

Centered

Day

ENSO

Phase

PDO AMO

Other Comments

Jul 16, 1951 El Nino - +  
Jul 17, 1951 El Nino - +  
Jun 24, 1970 La Nina - -  
Jul 19, 1979 Neutral + -  
Jul 5, 1998 La Nina -(t) + Following the MegaNino
Jul 6, 1998 La Nina -(t) + Following the MegaNino
Jul 23, 2004 El Nino + + Weak Modoki Type II
Jul 16, 2007 La Nina N +  

(t) = a month where the Ocean Cycle Index has just changed or does change the following month.

One thing that jumped out at me right away was the spread among the analogs from June 24 to July 23 which is 29 days which is a bit tighter than last week. I have not calculated the centroid of this distribution which would be the better way to look at things but the midpoint, which is a lot easier to calculate, is about July 9. These analogs are centered on 3 days and 4 days ago (July 6 or July 7). So the analogs could be considered to be fairly in sync with the calendar meaning that we will be getting weather that we would normally be getting this time of the year or just a few days later. For more information on Analogs see discussion in the GEI Weather Page Glossary.

There is a single ENSO Neutral Analog, four La Nina analogs, and three El Nino Analogs which might be considered as cancelling each other out and suggesting ENSO Neutral. The phases of the ocean cycles of the analogs are most consistent with McCabe Condition D which is the Southwest Drought Scenario. But it mostly relates to winter and dry winters often produce a wet Monsoon. So I do not conclude that the analogs preclude the forecast issued but I do conclude that even a 3 out of 5 level of confidence might be a bit too high.

The seminal work on the impact of the PDO and AMO on U.S. climate can be found here. Water Planners might usefully pay attention to the low-frequency cycles such as the AMO and the PDO as the media tends to focus on the current and short-term forecasts to the exclusion of what we can reasonably anticipate over multi-decadal periods of time. One of the major reasons that I write this weather and climate column is to encourage a more long-term and World view of weather.

McCabe Maps modified to include the subtitles

Sometimes it is easier to work in black and white especially if you print this report so there is a black and white version from the later report by the same authors. Darker corresponds to red in the color graphic i.e. higher probability of drought.

McCabe Conditions from 2007 report with labels corrected with authors permission

McCabe Condition Main Characteristics
A Very Little Drought. Southern Tier and Northern Tier from Dakotas East Wet. Some drought on East Coast.
B More wet than dry but Great Plains and Northeast are dry.
C Northern Tier and Mid-Atlantic Drought
D Southwest Drought extending to the North and also the Great Lakes. This is the most drought-prone combination of Ocean Phases.

You may have to squint but the drought probabilities are shown on the map and also indicated by the color coding with shades of red indicating higher than 25% of the years are drought years (25% or less of average precipitation for that area) and shades of blue indicating less than 25% of the years are drought years. Thus drought is defined as the condition that occurs 25% of the time and this ties in nicely with each of the four pairs of two phases of the AMO and PDO.

Historical Anomaly Analysis

When I see the same dates showing up often I find it interesting to consult this list.

Recent CONUS Weather

This is provided mainly to see the pattern in the weather that has occurred recently.

Here is the 30 Days ending July 1, 2017

July 1, 2017 30 Day Temperature and Precipitation Departures

The big change is the heat distribution which is very pronounced in the Southwest.  There is a graphic at the beginning of this article which explains why that is the case. Remember, this is a 30 average so the most distant seven days are removed and the most recent seven days are added.

And the 30 Days ending July 8, 2017

July 8, 2017 30 Day Temperature and Precipitation Departures

Not much change but a bit warmer in the Northeast. Remember, this is a 30 average so the most distant seven days are removed and the most recent seven days are added.

B. Beyond Alaska and CONUS Let's Look at the World which of Course also includes Alaska and CONUS

Same as above but for July

I will be including the above two graphics regularly as they really help with understanding why things are happening the way they are. I think the (at least intermediate) Source is The Weather Channel and I was able to download the full presentation with difficulty and you can attempt the same thing by clicking here.
I think these two slides are from a much larger set but these two really highlight the position of the Bermuda High which they are calling the Azores High in the January slide and is often called NASH and it has a very big impact on CONUS Southeast weather and also the Southwest. You also see the north/south migration of the Pacific High which also has many names and which is extremely important for CONUS weather and it also shows the change of location of the ITCZ which I think is key to understanding the Indian Monsoon. A lot of things become much clearer when you understand these semi-permanent features some of which have cycles within the year, longer period cycles and may be impacted by Global Warming.
We are now in July now so the set of positions shown above for July apply. For CONUS the seasonal repositioning of the Bermuda High and the Pacific High are very significant. Notice the Summer position of the Pacific High. It may be slightly out of position right now (too far south) but that should change very soon.

Forecast for Today

Temperature at 2 Meters

Notice that below the map there is a tabulation of magnitude of the current anomalies by region. The persistence of the extreme cool anomaly for Antarctica is quite interesting.

Maine Reanalyer

This graphic is actuals not anomalies as is the case in the temperature map. We again see the dry area from North Africa through Asia (other than Southeast Asia) as well as most areas south of the Equator. Most of North America other than the Southeast and the Great Lakes is dry.

Additional Maps showing different weather variables can be found here.

Forecast  for Day 6 (Currently Set for Day 6 but the reader can change that)

World Weather Forecast produced by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Unfortunately I do not know how to extract the control panel and embed it into my report so that you could use the tool within my report. But if you visit it Click Here  and you will be able to use the tool to view temperature or many other things for THE WORLD. It can forecast out for a week. Pretty cool. Return to this report by using the "Back Arrow" usually found top left corner of your screen to the left of the URL Box. It may require hitting it a few times depending on how deep you are into the BOM tool. Below are the current worldwide precipitation and temperature forecasts for six days out. They will auto-update and be current for Day 6 whenever you view them. If you want the forecast for a different day Click Here

Temperature

BOM Current Temperature Wedensday

The pattern of hot from North Africa through India continues in the Day 6 Forecast with North American being  part of the pattern. Please remember this graphic updates every six hours so the diurnal pattern can confuse the reader.

Precipitation

BOM World Preciptation  Wednesday

Notice that in the Day 6 Forecast, we again see the Atlantic and Pacific dominated by High Pressure. This forecast is not as bullish as the NOAA forecast re the penetration of the Sonoran Monsoon into CONUS but admittedly it is difficult to calibrate the green area shown on North America with the U.S./Mexico Border.

Looking Out a Few Months

Here is the precipitation forecast from Queensland Australia:

Falling SOI  forecast for July to September 2017.

It is kind of amazing that you can make a worldwide forecast based on just one parameter the SOI and changes in the SOI. Notice the change from the forecast last month due to the change from a rising SOI  to a falling SOI. It is more like an El Nino forecast than a La Nina forecast.

JAMSTEC Forecasts

One can always find the latest JAMSTEC maps by clicking this link. You will find additional maps that I do not general cover in my monthly Update Report. Remember if you leave this page to visit links provided in this article, you can return by hitting your "Back Arrow", usually top left corner of your screen just to the left of the URL box.

Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Departures from Normal for this Time of the Year i.e. Anomalies

My focus here is sea surface temperature anomalies as they are one of the two largest factors determining weather around the World.

And when we look at the current Sea Surface anomalies below, we see a lot of them not just along the Equator related to ENSO.[NOAA may be having problems updating their daily SST Anomaly Report so I am working with the latest version that I have]

Daily SST Anomalies

First the categorization of the anomalies.

Mediterranean, Black Sea and Caspian Sea Western Pacific West of North America East of North America North Atlantic
The Black Sea Sea and the  Mediterranean are very warm.

Mixed. Cool at 40N to 50N and warm at 30N

Yellow Sea warm

Very warm in the Bering Straights. Warm south of Aleutians. 

Suddenly warm off Baja and in Sea of Cortez.

Warm but cool out to sea off Newfoundland.

Hudson Bay very warm

Coastal Gulf of Mexico slightly warm

Mixed
The Tropical Pacific

Neutral with warmish cast.

Africa West of Australia North, South and East of Australia West of South America East of South America

Cool in Gulf of Guinea. A bit warm to the East

Cool to the west northwest Slightly warm to the east. Cool at 30S A bit warm at 40S. Cool at 20S

 

What you see in the below graphic is the change in the anomaly over the last four weeks So you have to refer to the graphic above this one to really interpret the below graphic as what we are seeing here is the change in the anomalies. So blue means a trend that is either cooler or less warm than four weeks ago. Red means a trend that is warmer or less cool than four weeks ago. So this graphic is a way of understanding how the anomalies shown in the above graphic have changed over the past four weeks. It is important to understand the distinction between these two graphics. The top one shows the recent conditions, the bottom one shows the direction of change.

July 10, 2017 four week change is SST Anomalies

The categorization of the four week change in the anomalies.

Mediterranean, Black Sea and Caspian Sea Western North Pacific West of North America East of North America North Atlantic

Caspian Sea and Eastern Mediterranean are warming.

Cooling around Japan

Cooling to east and west of India including the Persian Gulf  suggestive a bit of IOD Negative.

Warming west of Baja California

Warming south of the Eastern Aleutians.

Cooling of of CONUS Northwest

Hudson Bay Warming (I realize that is not east of NA).

Cooling off of New Jersey.

Slight cooling  around the Greater Antilles.

Warming in the Eastern GOM

Stable.
The Tropical Pacific Cooling east of 120W, cooling to the west, neutral Central with one warming spot at 135W. .
Africa West of Australia North, South and East of Australia West of South America East of South America

Cooling west from the Equator south.

Slight warming off the Southeast Coast

Cool west but way offshore.

Slight warming to the Southwest

Cooling to the northwest

Cooling off of Ecuador.

Cooling south of 30S but out to sea

Warming off Equator.

Cooling off of 40S

This may be a good time to show the recent values to the indices most commonly used to describe the overall spacial pattern of temperatures in the (Northern Hemisphere) Pacific and the (Northern Hemisphere) Atlantic and the Dipole Pattern in the Indian Ocean.

Most Recent Six Months of Index Values PDO Click for full list

AMO click for full list.

Indian Ocean Dipole (Values read off graph)
October -0.68 +0.39 -0.3
November +0.84 +0.40  0.0
December +0.55 +0.34 -0.1
January +0.10 +0.23  0.0
February +0.04 +0.23 +0.2
March +0.12 +0.17 +0.0
April +0.52 +0.29 +0.2
May +0.31 +0.32 +0.2
June +0.17   −0.2.

 

Switching gears, below is an analysis of projected tropical hazards and benefits over an approximately two-week period.

Tropical Hazards

This graphic updates on Tuesdays and I post on Monday which is almost a week later than when this graphic was last updated. So Week Two applies at the time I write this article on Monday but by the time you read it on Tuesday, the Week Two that I am looking at is updated and becomes Week One. Mostly I see as I look at this on July 10 for what is shown as Week Two, the period July 12, 2017 to July 18, 2017, we see wet conditions* just north of the Equator for Africa and impacting the Maritime Continent. We see an area with the potential* for the development of cyclones near the Philippines. We see dry conditions* impacting India and Central America.
* Moderate Confidence that the indicated anomaly will be in the upper or lower third of the historical range as indicated in the Legend. 
** High Confidence that the indicated anomaly will be in the upper or lower third of the historical range as indicated in the Legend.

Now let us look at the Western Pacific in Motion.

Western Pacific Tropical Activity

The above graphic which I believe covers the area from the Dateline west to 100E and from the Equator north to 45N normally shows the movement of tropical storms towards Asia in the lower latitudes (Trade Winds) and the return of storms towards CONUS in the mid-latitudes (Prevailing Westerlies). This is recent data not a forecast. But, it ties in with the Week 1 forecast in the graphic just above this graphic. Information on Western Pacific storms can be found by clicking here. This (click here to read) is an unofficial private source but one that is easy to read.

C. Progress of ENSO

A major driver of weather is Surface Ocean Temperatures. Evaporation only occurs from the Surface of Water. So we are very interested in the temperatures of water especially when these temperatures deviate from seasonal norms thus creating an anomaly. The geographical distribution of the anomalies is very important.
To a substantial extent, the temperature anomalies along the Equator have disproportionate impact on weather so we study them intensely and that is what the ENSO (El Nino - Southern Oscillation) cycle is all about.
Subsurface water can be thought of as the future surface temperatures. They may have only indirect impacts on current weather but they have major impacts on future weather by changing the temperature of the water surface.
Winds and Convection (evaporation forming clouds) is weather and is a result of the Phases of ENSO and also a feedback loop that perpetuates the current Phase of ENSO or changes it. That is why we monitor winds and convection along or near the Equator especially the Equator in the Eastern Pacific. 

Starting with Surface Conditions.

TAO/TRITON GRAPHIC (a good way of viewing data related to the part of the Equator and the waters close to the Equator in the Eastern Pacific where we monitor to determining the current phase of ENSO. It is probably not necessary to follow the discussion below, but here is a link to TAO/TRITON terminology.

And here is the current version of the TAO/TRITON Graphic. The top part shows the actual temperatures, the bottom part shows the anomalies i.e. the deviation from normal.

Notice in the bottom graphic the big difference between temperature anomalies south of the Equator and north of the Equator. This creates a dynamic situation.

Current SST and wind anomalies

Location Bar for Nino 3.4 Area Above and Below
------------------------------------------------  A       B       C      D       E       -----------------

 

If one were to track this day by day over the past month one would see both the northern intrusion from south of the Equator strengthening (temperature) but being squeezed from both the east and the west. We believe it will gradually be squeezed back south and eventually out of the Nino 3.4 Measurement Area.

The below table only looks at the Equator and shows the extent of anomalies along the Equator. The ONI Measurement Area is the 50 degrees of Longitude between 170W and 120W and extends 5 degrees of Latitude North and South of the Equator so the above table is just a guide and a way of tracking the changes.The top rows show El Nino anomalies. The two rows just below that break point contribute to ENSO Neutral.

Subareas of the Anomaly

Westward Extension

 

Eastward Extension

 

Degrees of Coverage

Total   

Portion in Nino 3.4 Measurement Area

These Rows below show the Extent of El Nino Impact on the Equator

1C to 1.5C (strong)

160W

140W

20

20

+0.5C to +1C (marginal)

 

DATELINE

140W

 

160W

130W

30

20

These Rows Below Show the Extent of ENSO Neutral Impacts on the Equator
0.5C or cooler Anomaly (warmish neutral)*

130W

110W

20

10

0C or cooler Anomaly (coolish neutral)

110W

LAND

15

0

 

My Calculation of the Nino 3.4 Index

I calculate the current value of the Nino 3.4 Index each Monday using a method that I have devised. To refine my calculation, I have divided the 170W to 120W Nino 3.4 measuring area into five subregions (which I have designated from west to east as A through E) with a location bar shown under the TAO/TRITON Graphic). I use a rough estimation approach to integrate what I see below and record that in the table I have constructed. Then I take the average of the anomalies I estimated for each of the five subregions.

So as of Monday July 10, in the afternoon working from the July 9 TAO/TRITON report [Although the TAO/TRITON Graphic appears to update once a day, in reality it updates more frequently.], this is what I calculated.

Calculation of ONI from TAO/TRITON Graphic
Anomaly Segment Estimated Anomaly
  Last Week This Week
A. 170W to 160W +0.8 +0.7
B. 160W to 150W +1.0 +1.0
C. 150W to 140W +0.8 +1.0
D. 140W to 130W +0.7 +0.7
E. 130W to 120W +0.4 +0.3
Total +3.7 +3.7
Total divided by five i.e. the Daily Nino 3.4 Index (+3.7)/5 = +0.7 (+3.7)/5 = + 0.7

 

My estimate of the daily Nino 3.4 SST anomaly tonight is again +0.7 which is an El Nino Value. NOAA has reported the weekly Nino 3.4 to be +0.6 which is an El Nino Value but lower than last week.
Nino 4.0 is reported the same as last week at +0.6. Nino 3 is the lower at +0.2. Nino 1 + 2 which extends from the Equator south rather than being centered on the Equator is reported much lower at -0.3. I believe it was up there close to 3 at one time so this index has been declining quite a bit and also fluctuating quite a bit which is not surprising as it is the area most impacted by the Upwelling off the coast. So it is an indication of the interaction between surface water and rising cool water. Thus it is subject to larger changes. From other sources some of the daily values his week have been lower than -0.5.
I am only showing the currently issued version of the NINO SST Index Table as the prior values are shown in the small graphics on the right with this graphic. The same data in table form but going back a couple of more years can be found here.

July 10, 2017 Nino Readings

This is probably the best place to express the thought that this way of measuring an ENSO event leaves a lot to be desired. Only the surface interacts with the atmosphere and is able to influence weather. The subsurface tells us how long the surface will remain cool (or warm). Anomalies are deviations from "Normal". NOAA calculates and determines what is "Normal" which changes due to long ocean cycles and Global Warming. So to some extent, the system is "rigged". Hopefully it is rigged to assist in providing improved weather forecasts. But to assume that any numbers reported can be assumed to be accurate to a high level of precision is foolhardy. It is strange to me that the Asian forecasting services generally conclude that that this cool ENSO Phase is not a La Nina but a near La Nina and NOAA concludes it is a La Nina. It is the same ocean. The reported readings are very close but the Asian readings are generally slightly higher (less La Nina-ish) than the NOAA reading and their cut-off points for declaring a La Nina are a bit different and the parts of the Equator they look at are a bit different. It might be explained by what part of the ENSO pattern impacts their area of geography but it just seems to me that NOAA has been a bit over eager. And I wonder why.

Sea Surface Temperature and Anomalies

It is the ocean surface that interacts with the atmosphere and causes convection and also the warming and cooling of the atmosphere. So we are interested in the actual ocean surface temperatures and the departure from seasonal normal temperatures which is called "departures" or "anomalies". Since warm water facilitates evaporation which results in cloud convection, the pattern of SST anomalies suggests how the weather pattern east of the anomalies will be different than normal.

July 10, 2017 Equatorial Pacific SST Anomalies

A major advantage of the Hovmoeller method of displaying information is that it shows the history so I do not need to show a sequence of snapshots of the conditions at different points in time. This Hovmoeller provides a good way to visually see the evolution of this ENSO event. I have decided to use the prettied-up version that comes out on Mondays rather that the version that auto-updates daily because the SST Departures on the Equator do not change rapidly and the prettied-up version is so much easier to read.
The bottom of the Hovmoeller which shows the current readings is now light yellow which is not El Nino warm but clearly on the warm side of Neutral. Remember the +5, -5 degree strip around the Equator that is being reported in this graphic. So it is the surface but not just the Equator.
Week to week there have been no substantial changes since the far East Pacific cooled down. It is ENSO Neutral with a warm bias. But the cool area east of 100W has expanded and we see another cool area perhaps at 120W. These are not in the Nino 3.4 Measurement Area but are important never-the-less.

I had stopped showing the below graphic which is more focused on the Equator but looks down to 300 meters rather than just being the surface. But recently there has been sufficient change to warrant including this graphic. And now that we are back tracking a possible El Nino it is the graphic of choice.

July 10, 2017 Upper Ocean Heat Anoma

The bottom of the Hovmoeller shows the current situation. The Cool Event is long gone. But what might be successive Kevin waves initiating an El Nino are still not very impressive. If you look from the bottom of the graphic up you can see that any La Nina conditions ended in December. There is not much change from the prior week. But what I am really looking for is the left portion of the graphic the Pacific Warm Pool and I don't see much change. Reds are what is needed for an El Nino. There is a warm area shown between 145W and 130W which creates the marginal El Nino values of the Nino 3.4 Index. This may be a combination of warm water rising and warm water moving north into the area covered by this graphic. We also see to the far left a white area. That needs to be brown or red for there to be an El Nino.

Let us look in more detail at the Equatorial Water Temperatures.

We are now going to look at a three-dimensional view of the Equator and move from the surface view and an average of the subsurface heat content to a more detailed view from the surface down  This graphic provides both a summary perspective and a history (small images on the right). 

.July 10, 2017 Kelvin Wave Analysis.

The pattern has changed a bit since last week which you can tell by looking at the stack of graphics on the right. We now have warmer water near the surface from only about 140W to 130W which is sufficient to raise the Nino 3.4 reading and keep it there for a little while but less than last week. To the west there is another warm pod at depth at 165E  to 175W which could be replacement warm water except it is not very large and is not growing. To the east it looks like there is not much happening. It is like everything else we look at ENSO Neutral to the high side and can be interpreted as marginally El Nino.

Now for a more detailed look (there is some redundancy with the above graphic). Notice by the date of the graphic (dated July 2, 2017) that the lag in getting this information posted so the current situation may be a bit different than shown although this graphic was just updated this afternoon. The date shown is the midpoint of a five-day period with that date as the center of the five-day period.

Below is the pair of graphics that I regularly provide.

The bottom graphic shows the absolute values, the upper graphic shows anomalies compared to what one might expect at this time of the year in the various areas both 130E to 90W Longitude and from the surface down to 450 meters. At different times and today in particular, I have discussed the difference between the actual values and the deviation of the actual values from what is defined as current climatology (which adjusts every ten years except along the Equator where it is adjusted every five years) and how both measures are useful for other purposes.

Subsurface Heat Anomalies

Re the top graphic, let us first look at surface temperature anomalies. There is an area of neutral water off the coast of Ecuador.There is warm, slightly warm interspersed with neutral water from 105W almost to the Dateline. Subsurface Temperature Anomalies: There is not much left of the cool water pod that blocks the arrival of warmer water. Below the Nino 3.4 Measurement Area there is a modest amount of moderately warm water (1C+ on an anomaly basis). Right now this warmer water does reach the surface from 145W to 135W. There is a moderately warm pocket of water that extends from just east of the Dateline to just east of 150E which is only 20 degrees of longitude. And there is cool water further to the west and cool water below the very moderately warm water that extends from the Dateline to the west. 
The bottom half of the graphic (Absolute Values which highlights the Thermocline) is now more useful as we track the transition from last winter's ENSO Cool Event to ENSO Neutral to ENSO Neutral with a warm bias which may possibly become an El Nino. More likely we will soon see the situation change to ENSO Neutral with a warm bias and then to just plain ENSO Neutral. It shows the thermocline between warm and cool water. The 28C Isotherm is now located further west at about 160W. This graphic does not show a 27.5C anomaly which might more precisely indicate where convection is likely to occur. The 27C isotherm is just east of 140W. We do not have ideal (El Nino) conditions for significant convection along the Equator east of the Dateline. What we have is increasingly looking like ENSO Neutral which may record at El Nino levels for a month or so. The 25C isotherm no longer extends all to the way to Ecuador (nor does the 24C or 23C Isotherms) which is fairly consistent with ENSO Neutral.
The flattening of the Isotherm Pattern is an indication of ENSO Neutral just as the steepening of the pattern indicates La Nina or El Nino depending on where the slope shows the warm or cool pool to be. That flattening has occurred. At this point, we have gone to ENSO Neutral but not El Nino although the situation is essentially the dividing line between El Nino and ENSO Neutral.
It does not appear likely that the conditions exist to create an El Nino.

Here are the above graphics as a time sequence animation. You may have to click on them to get the animation going.

Equatorial Temperature Simulation

Isotherm Simulation

And now Let us look at the Atmosphere.

Low-Level Wind Anomalies near the Equator

Here are the low-level wind anomalies.

Low Level Wlind Anomalies

We now see westerlies all over the Equator which should be favorable for the development of an El Nino but do not seem to be having much of an impact.

And now the Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR) Anomalies which tells us where convection has been taking place. 

OLR Anomalies Along the Equator

The pattern has changed. We no longer see suppressed Outgoing Long Wave Radiation (OLR) at the Dateline (no longer dry) but we again see enhanced OLR at 120E ( wet)

And Now the Air Pressure which Shows up Mostly in an Index called the SOI.

This index provides an easy way to assess the location of and the relative strength of the Convection (Low Pressure) and the Subsidence (High Pressure) near the Equator. Experience shows that the extent to which the Atmospheric Air Pressure at Tahiti exceeds the Atmospheric Pressure at Darwin Australia when normalized is substantially correlated with the Precipitation Pattern of the entire World. At this point there seems to be no need to show the daily preliminary values of the SOI but we can work with the 30 day and 90 day values.

Current SOI Readings

The 30 Day Average on July 10 was reported as -4.66 which is no longer an El Nino value. The 90 Day Average was reported at -4.86 which is an ENSO Neutral value. Looking at both the 30 and 90 day averages is useful and right now both are in agreement. They seem to be tracking the Nino 3.4 Index pretty well and reflected the probably short-term rise in the Nino 3.4 Index. After about 30+ consecutive days of negative SOI values there has now been about a week of positive values which has brought the 30 day average back into the neutral range.

 

SOI = 10 X  [ Pdiff - Pdiffav ]/ SD(Pdiff)  where  Pdiff   =   (average Tahiti MSLP for the month) - (average Darwin MSLP for the month),  Pdiffav   =   long term average of Pdiff for the month in question, and SD(Pdiff)   =   long term standard deviation of Pdiff for the month in question. So really it is comparing the extent to which Tahiti is more cloudy than Darwin,  Australia.  During El Nino we expect Darwin Australia to have lower air pressure and more convection than Tahiti (Negative SOI especially lower than -7 correlates with El Nino Conditions). During La Nina we expect the Warm Pool to be further east resulting in Positive SOI values greater than +7). 

To some extent it is the change in the SOI that is of most importance. The MJO or Madden Julian Oscillation is an important factor in regulating the SOI and Kelvin Waves and other tropical weather characteristics. More information on the MJO can be found here. Here is another good resource.

Forecasting the Evolution of ENSO

The new IRI/CPC fully model-based report issued on June 15 is shown on the right. The earlier June 8 Meteorologist survey is shown on the right.

June 15. 2017 CPC/IRI Update two graphics side by side.

There is a big difference between the perspective on June 15 and June 8. The green (ENSO Neutral) bars were higher than the red (El Nino ) bars for all months in the June 8 Report. Now the green (ENSO Neutral) bars and the red (El Nino) bars are pretty much shown as equally likely in OND (2017) and NDJ 2017/2018. This was not reflected in the NOAA Seasonal Outlook issued on June 15 and is interesting as it brings the NOAA and JAMSTEC ideas more in line until you look at the next graphic.

CFSv2 spread and bias correct ENSO forecast

The estimated current value of the Nino 3.4 Temperature Anomaly after the adjustments have been applied is about 0.5 for June and July which is a borderline El Nino/Neutral value but it does not maintain that level into JAS i.e. the Summer. The warm anomaly in the Nino 3.4 Measurement Area continues to decline into the Winter. But notice the wide spread among forecast members into the Fall and Winter. The forecasts have come down from a strong El Nino to what may be simply a short period of El Nino Conditions not lasting long enough to be classified as an El Nino. The combination of the evidence suggests ENSO Neutral.
But we are starting to see this model flirting with La Nina for this winter.

From Tropical Tidbits.com

CDAS Legacy System

The above is from a legacy "frozen" NOAA system meaning the software is maintained but not updated. It seems to show a cycle in the Nino 3.4 Index Values. I see that as I monitor the TAO/TRITON graphic. My best guess is that it is related to the MJO but it certainly is intriguing. I do not need to draw in the lines for you to see that the Nino 3.4 Index as reported by CDAS has moved above the 0C line and is now reporting a warm anomaly but not yet an increasing warm anomaly.

Forecasts from Other Meteorological Agencies.

Here is the Nino 3.4 report from the Australian BOM (it updates every two weeks)

Australia POAMA ENSO model run

Discussion

Tropical Pacific Ocean remains ENSO neutral

The tropical Pacific Ocean is currently neutral. Most climate models indicate the Pacific is likely to remain ENSO neutral for the remainder of 2017. This means the Bureau’s ENSO Outlook is currently INACTIVE, with neither El Niño nor La Niña expected to influence Australia’s climate this year.

Seven of eight international climate models surveyed by the Bureau indicate that ENSO-neutral conditions are likely for the second half of 2017.

Although the tropical Pacific Ocean is slightly warmer than usual, this warmth is within the ENSO neutral range. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) has recently been negative due to higher than normal atmospheric pressure in the Australian region, but all other ENSO indicators are at neutral levels.

In the tropical Indian Ocean, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is also neutral, with no sign of either negative IOD or positive IOD present in the ocean or atmosphere. However, some climate models suggest a positive IOD could develop in the coming months. Positive IOD events are typically associated with below average winter and spring rainfall over central and southern Australia.

Here is the JAMSTEC June 1 forecast of the Nino 3.4 values which are the most looked at index used to forecast El Nino.

JAMSTEC June 1, 2017 ENSO Forecast.

As you can see this is an ENSO Neutral pattern with a short period of El Nino Conditions in late 2017 early 2018 and an intriguing hint of a La Nina next Spring.

Here is the discussion that corresponds to the JAMSTEC June 1 Nino 3.4 Forecast.

Jun 19, 2017

Prediction from 1st June, 2017

ENSO forecast:

A chance of El Niño occurrence is much reduced. Instead, warmer-than-normal sea surface temperature is predicted for the whole tropical Pacific. This condition will persist until boreal fall. Then, it will evolve into a weak El Niño/El Niño Modoki by early winter. [Editor's Note: Of course they meant to say El Nino Modoki Conditions because the duration will not according to their current forecast be long enough to be recorded as an El Nino Modoki]

Indian Ocean forecast:

All ensemble members of SINTEX-F now predict a rather strong positive Indian Ocean Dipole [Editor's Note: the Australia BOM disagrees]; the ensemble mean prediction suggests that it peaks in boreal fall. In accord to the positive IOD evolution, sea level anomalies are expected to be negative (positive) in the eastern (western) tropical Indian Ocean.

Regional forecast:

On a seasonal scale, most part of the globe will experience a warmer-than-normal condition, while some parts of northern Russia and West Africa will experience a colder-than-normal condition in the boreal summer. In the boreal fall, most part of the globe also will be in a warmer-than-normal condition, while some parts of northern Europe, central China, and Indonesia will be in a colder-than-normal condition in the boreal fall.

As regards to the seasonally averaged rainfall, a wetter-than-normal condition is predicted for some parts of West Africa, Mexico, and Southeast Asia during the boreal summer, whereas most parts of Indonesia, Australia, India, eastern China, northern Brazil, and Peru will experience a drier condition during the boreal summer. In the boreal fall, most parts of Indonesia, Australia, eastern China, the Far East, and southern Brazil will experience a drier-than-normal condition, while most parts of West Africa, East Africa, and southern Africa will be wetter-than-normal. Those are partly due to the positive Indian Ocean Dipole.

Most parts of Japan will experience moderately warmer-than-normal and drier-than normal summer. The wind and pressure anomalies averaged in September-November suggests that Japan might be covered by an equivalent barotropic high. The hotter and drier condition may persist even in fall. Those may be due to the combined effect of the "monsoon-desert mechanism" of the positive Indian Ocean Dipole and the "Silk Road pattern" along the Asian jet.

Indian Ocean IOD (It updates every two weeks)

The IOD Forecast is indirectly related to ENSO but in a complex way.

IOD POAMA Model Run

Discussion Issued

The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is neutral. The weekly index value to 2 July was −0.25 °C.

Three out of six climate models predict a positive IOD will develop during late winter to early spring.

A positive IOD typically brings below average winter–spring rainfall to parts of southern and central Australia.

It is important to understand how and where the IOD is measured.

IOD Measurement Regions

IOD Positive is the West Area being warmer than the East Area (with of course many adjustments/normalizations). IOD Negative is the East Area being warmer than the West Area.  Notice that the Latitudinal extent of the western box is greater than that of the eastern box. This type of index is based on observing how these patterns impact weather and represent the best efforts of meteorological agencies to figure these things out. Global Warming may change the formulas probably slightly over time but it is costly and difficult to redo this sort of work because of long weather cycles.

D. Putting it all Together.

At this time there is reduced interest as to whether or not this Summer and Fall will be El Nino situations. It would seem that the chances of other than a marginal El Nino are fairly low.

Forecasting Beyond Five Years.

So in terms of long-term forecasting, none of this is very difficult to figure out actually if you are looking at say a five-year or longer forecast.

The research on Ocean Cycles is fairly conclusive and widely available to those who seek it out. I have provided a lot of information on this in prior weeks and all of that information is preserved in Part II of my report in the Section on Low Frequency Cycles 3. Low Frequency Cycles such as PDO, AMO, IOBD, EATS.   It includes decade by decade predictions through 2050. Predicting a particular year is far harder.

The odds of a climate shift for the Pacific taking place has significantly increased. It may be in progress. JAMSTEC was suggesting that if there is an El Nino in the winter of 2017/2018 this could signify that the PDO had entered its Positive Phase. The AMO is pretty much neutral at this point (but more positive i.e. warm than I had expected) so it may need to become a bit more negative for the "McCabe A" pattern to become established. That seems to be slow to happen so I am thinking we need at least a couple more years for that to happen. JAMSTEC was suggesting it might occur very soon. But their strong El Nino forecast appears to have been premature. So our assessment that the standard time for Climate Shifts in the Pacific are likely to prevail and it most likely will be a gradual process with a speed up in less than five years but more than two years.

E. Relevant Recent Articles and Reports

Weather in the News

Heat Wave Bakes Southwest

California Reeling from Wildfires

Weather Research in the News

Nothing to report

Global Warming in the News

Nothing to report

F. Table of Contents for Page II of this Report Which Provides a lot of Background Information on Weather and Climate Science  

The links below may take you directly to the set of information that you have selected but in some Internet Browsers it may first take you to the top of Page II where there is a TABLE OF CONTENTS and take a few extra seconds to get you to the specific section selected. If you do not feel like waiting, you can click a second time within the TABLE OF CONTENTS to get to the specific part of the webpage that interests you.

1. Very High Frequency (short-term) Cycles PNA, AO,NAO (but the AO and NAO may also have a low frequency component.)

2. Medium Frequency Cycles such as ENSO and IOD

3. Low Frequency Cycles such as PDO, AMO, IOBD, EATS.

4. Computer Models and Methodologies

5. Reserved for a Future Topic  (Possibly Predictable Economic Impacts)

G. Table of Contents of Contents for Page III of this Report  - Global Warming Which Some Call Climate Change.  

The links below may take you directly to the set of information that you have selected but in some Internet Browsers it may first take you to the top of Page III where there is a TABLE OF CONTENTS and take a few extra seconds to get you to the specific section selected. If you do not feel like waiting, you can click a second time within the TABLE OF CONTENTS to get to the specific part of the webpage that interests you.

1. Introduction

2. Climate Impacts of Global Warming

3. Economic Impacts of Global Warming

4. Reports from Around the World on Impacts of Global Warming

H. Useful Background Information

The current conditions are measured by determining the deviation of actual sea surface temperatures from seasonal norms (adjusted for Global Warming) in certain parts of the Equatorial Pacific. The below diagram shows those areas where measurements are taken.

El Nino Zones

NOAA focuses on a combined area which is all of Region Nino 3 and part of Region Nino 4 and it is called Nino 3.4. They focus on that area as they believe it provides the best correlation with future weather for the U.S. primarily the Continental U.S. not including Alaska which is abbreviated as CONUS. The historical approach of measurement of the impact of the sea surface temperature pattern on the atmosphere is called the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) which is the difference between the atmospheric pressure at Tahiti as compared to Darwin Australia. It was convenient to do this as weather stations already existed at those two locations and it is easier to have weather stations on land than at sea. It has proven to be quite a good measure. The best information on the SOI is produced by Queensland Australia and that information can be found here. SOI is based on Atmospheric pressure as a surrogate for Convection and Subsidence. Another approach made feasible by the use of satellites is to to measure precipitation over the areas of interest and this is called the El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Precipitation Index  (ESPI).  We covered that in a weekly Weather and Climate Report which can be found here. Our conclusion was that ESPI did not differentiate well between La Nina and Neutral. And there is now a newer measure not regularly used called the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). More information on MEI can be found here. The jury is still out on MEI and it it is not widely used. 

The below diagram shows the usual location of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. When the warm water shifts to the east we have an El Nino; to the west a La Nina.

Western Pacific Warm Pool

Click for Source

Interaction between the MJO and ENSO

This Table is a first attempt at trying to relate the MJO to ENSO

  El Nino La Nina MJO Active Phase MJO Inactive Phase
Relationship of MJO and ENSO
Eastern Pacific Easterlies
  • Weaker
  • Stronger
  • Part of Decay Process
  • Counteracts Easterlies
  • Enhances Easterlies
Western Pacific Westerlies
  • Stronger
  • May Create or Stimulate the Onset of El Nino via Kelvin Waves
  • Weaker
  • Part of Decay Process
  • Strengthens Westerlies
  • Weakens Westerlies
MJO Active Phase
  • More  likely
  • Stimulates
  • Less likely and weak
  • Retards development of a new La Nina
  • Stimulates the Jet Stream
 
MJO Inactive Phase
  • Less Likely
  • Suppresses
  • More likely but weak
  • Accelerates development of a new La Nina and the Decline of a mature La Nina
 
  • Slows the Jet Stream and can induce a Split Stream especially during a La Nina

 

Table needs more work. Is intended to show the interactions. What is more difficult is determining cause and effect. This is a Work in Progress. 

History of ENSO Events

With respect to relating analog dates to ENSO Events, the following table might be useful. In most cases this table will allow the reader to draw appropriate conclusions from NOAA supplied analogs. If the analogs are not associated with an El Nino or La Nina they probably are not as easily interpreted. Remember, an analog is indicating a similarity to a weather pattern in the past. So if the analogs are not associated with a prior El Nino or prior La Nina the computer models are not likely to generate a forecast that is consistent with an El Nino or a La Nina.

  El Ninos La Ninas
  Start Finish Max ONI PDO AMO Start Finish Max ONI PDO AMO
            DJF 1950 J FM 1951 -1.4 - N
T   JJA 1951  DJF     1952 0.9 - +          
   DJF 1953  DJF     1954 0.8 - + AMJ 1954  AMJ 1956 -1.6 - +
M MAM 1957  JJA     1958 1.7 + -          
M SON 1958 JFM     1959 0.6 + -          
M   JJA 1963 JFM     1964 1.2 - - AMJ 1964  DJF 1965 -0.8 - -
M  MJJ 1965 MAM    1966 1.8 - - NDJ 1967 MAM 1968 -0.8 - -
M OND 1968 MJJ      1969 1.0 - -          
T  JAS 1969  DJF     1970 0.8 N -  JJA 1970  DJF 1972 -1.3 - -
T AMJ 1972 FMA     1973 2.0 - - MJJ 1973 JJA 1974 -1.9 - -
            SON 1974 FMA 1976 -1.6 - -
T ASO 1976 JFM     1977 0.8 + -          
M ASO 1977 DJF      1978 0.8 N            
M SON 1979 JFM     1980 0.6 + -          
T MAM 1982  MJJ     1983 2.1 + - SON 1984 MJJ 1985 -1.1 + -
M ASO 1986  JFM    1988 1.6 + - AMJ 1988 AMJ 1989 -1.8 - -
M MJJ 1991  JJA     1992 1.6 + -          
M SON 1994  FMA    1995 1.0 - - JAS\ 1995 FMA 1996 -1.0 + +
T AMJ 1997  AMJ    1998 2.3 + + JJA  1998 FMA 2001 -1.6 - +
M MJJ 2002  JFM    2003 1.3 + N          
M  JJA 2004 MAM    2005 0.7 + +          
T ASO 2006 DJF      2007 0.9 - + JAS  2007  MJJ 2008 -1.4 - +
M JJA 2009 MAM     2010 1.3 N + JJA  2010 MAM 2011 -1.3 + +
            JAS 2011 JFM  2012 -0.9 - +
T MAM 2015 AMJ     2016 2.3 + N  JAS 2016 NDJ  2016 -0.8*  + +

 

*The GEI Weather and Climate Report does not accept this as a legitimate La Nina. It is not unusual for different Meteorological Agencies to maintain different lists of El Ninos and La Ninas. This is usually because the criteria for classification differ slightly. Obviously the GEI Weather and Climate Report has no standing but nevertheless for any analysis we do, we will either not include or asterisk this La Nina to indicate that NOAA  has it on their list and we consider that to be Fake News. The alternative is to conclude that the other Meteorological Agencies are not able to measuring things correctly. .

ONI Recent History

ONI History Updated on July 10, 2017

The Apr/May/Jun preliminary was reported as +0.5. This means that we would still need four consecutive values of +0.5 or greater for this to be an El Nino and that is not going to happen. The full history of the ONI readings can be found here. The MEI index readings can be found here.

Click here for a list of Sig Silber's Weather Posts

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