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posted on 30 November 2015

30 November 2015 Weather and Climate Report - NOAA Issues Updated December Outlook.

Written by Sig Silber

NOAA has issued their end of month update for the following month which is December. There are only minor changes to the earlier release which are described below. It is starting to look to me like this El Nino will be for the most part a Jan-Feb-Mar event rather than a Dec-Jan-Feb event. It arrived early but was reinforced by a fourth Kelvin Wave and there are other factors involved.

weather.caption

 

This is the Regular Edition of my weekly Weather and Climate Update Report. Additional information can be found here on Page II of the Global Economic Intersection Weather and Climate Report.

NOAA has today issued their end of month update of their "early" outlook for the subsequent month which is December. Let's start by comparing the "Early" release maps with the updated maps.

"Early" Release Temperature Outlook

Early Outlook for December 2015 Temperatures Issued November 19, 2019

Updated Temperature Outlook

December Temperature, 2015 Outlook Issued November 30, 2015

The cool area in the Southwest has been moved up into Utah and the warm area on the East Coast is now continuous.

Early Release Precipitation Outlook

December 2015 Early Precipitation Outlook Issued on November 19, 2015

Updated Precipitation Outlook

December 2015 Precipitation Outlook Issued on November 30, 2015

The dry area around the Great Lakes has been removed. The Northwest is now a bit wet and Arizona has moved into the category of EC meaning the chances of being different from Climatology in either direction are equal. Some refer to EC as the forecaster being "equally clueless" but I am sure that is said in a good natured way.

Here are Excerpts from the NOAA Discussion

30-DAY OUTLOOK DISCUSSION FOR DECEMBER 2015

THERE IS RELATIVELY LITTLE CHANGE IN THE DECEMBER 2015 OUTLOOK FROM THE 0.5 MONTH LEAD FORECAST. THE FORECAST EVOLUTION OVER NORTH AMERICA FOR THE NEXT TWO WEEKS APPEARS TO BE A COMBINATION OF THE LOW-FREQUENCY ENSO RESPONSE, COMBINED WITH POSITIVE PHASES OF BOTH THE NAO/AO AND THE NPO/WP PATTERNS. IN THAT FRAMEWORK, EXCEPTIONALLY MILD TEMPERATURES ARE EXPECTED FOR THE FIRST HALF OF THE MONTH ACROSS MUCH OF NORTH AMERICA.

PROBABILITIES FOR ABOVE-NORMAL TEMPERATURES EXCEED 70 PERCENT ACROSS A LARGE SWATH OF THE MIDWEST, GREAT LAKES, AND NORTHEAST. THE AREA FAVORING BELOW-NORMAL TEMPERATURES IS SIMILAR TO THAT FROM THE ORIGINAL OUTLOOK, BUT WITH SOME EXTENSION NORTHWESTWARD TO UTAH. THIS IS BASED ON THE LATEST MODEL GUIDANCE, BUT WITH LOW CONFIDENCE.

THE PRECIPITATION OUTLOOK LARGELY CARRIES OVER AS WELL, WITH SOME SUBTLE CHANGES. MOST NOTABLY, ABOVE-MEDIAN PRECIPITATION IS FAVORED FOR THE NORTHWEST COAST, WHILE EQUAL CHANCES IS DEPICTED ACROSS PARTS OF THE MIDWEST AND GREAT LAKES. IN THE CASE OF THE LATTER, THERE IS SOME COMPETITION WITH THE LOW-FREQUENCY STATE, WHICH FAVORS BELOW-MEDIAN PRECIPITATION AS WE HEAD DEEPER INTO WINTER.

RECENT DETERMINISTIC RUNS OF THE GFS DEPICT SOME SORT OF PATTERN CHANGE NEAR MID-MONTH. THIS SEEMS SOMEWHAT CONSISTENT WITH SUBSEASONAL TROPICAL VARIABILITY, WHICH HAS DISTURBED THE CANONICAL DIVERGENT CIRCULATION ASSOCIATED WITH ENSO. THE LATEST WEEKS 3+4 GUIDANCE DOES NOT SHOW THIS, HOWEVER, AND ODDS OF A PATTERN CHANGE THAT COULD REVERSE THE TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES THAT DEVELOP DURING THE HIGH-CONFIDENCE PATTERN EARLY IN THE MONTH ARE EXCEEDINGLY SMALL.

Combination Graphic showing the new December and Three-Month temperature and precipitation Outlooks.

Dec 2015 and D,J,F 2015-2016 issuede on November 30, 2015

One can mentally subtract the December Outlook from the three-month Outlook and create the Outlook for the last two months in the three-month period namely January and February 2016. When I do that I deduce that January and February will be:

Possibly warmer in the Northwest, Southern California and Nevada than shown in the three-month map. Possibly a bit cooler in the Southeast. Possibly even higher probabilities than shown for the anomalies in the wet and dry areas. The Great Lakes are an area where NOAA is very uncertain of the outlook.

One has to keep in mind that we are now subtracting a November 30 December Map from a November 19 Three-month map so it is less reliable than the exercise we went through last week. We are assuming that the three-month outlook issued on November 19 would not change if it was released today. The results in the box above might be an indication of how the three-month outlook might have been modified if issued today.

Not Let us Focus on the Current (Right Now to 5 Days Out) Weather Situation.

A more complete version of this report with daily forecasts is available in Part II. This is a summary of that more extensive report. This link Worldwide Weather: Current and Three-Month Outlooks: 15 Month Outlooks will take you directly to that set of information but in some Internet Browsers it may just take you to the top of Page II where there is a TABLE OF CONTENTS and you may have to wait for a few seconds for your Browser to redirect to the selected section with that Page or if that process is very slow you can simply click a second time within the TABLE OF CONTENTS to get to that specific part of the webpage.

First, here is a national animation of weather front and precipitation forecasts with four 6-hour projections of the conditions that will apply covering the next 24 hours and a second day of two 12-hour projections the second of which is the forecast for 48 hours out and to the extent it applies for 12 hours, this animation is intended to provide coverage out to 60 hours. Beyond 60 hours, additional maps are available at the link provided above.

current highs and lows

The explanation for the coding used in these maps, i.e. the full legend, can be found here although it includes some symbols that are no longer shown in the graphic because they are implemented by color coding.

The map below is the mid-atmosphere 7-Day chart rather than the surface highs and lows and weather features. In some cases it provides a clearer less confusing picture as it shows only the major pressure gradients. That is quite an impressive trough shown on this graphic. Less than six hours ago it was centered in the Plains States. Now it is clearly shown impacting the West. If you do not like the forecast, wait until the next every six-hour model run and update of the graphics. This graphic auto-updates so when you look at it you will see NOAA's latest thinking.

7 Day 500 MB Geopotential Forecast

Because "Thickness Lines" are shown by those green lines on this graphic it is a good place to define "Thickness" and its uses. You can find a full uk.sci.weather style explanation (thorough) at that link or just remember that Thickness measures the virtual temperature plus moisture content) of the lower atmosphere and is very useful especially in the winter at identifying areas prone to snow and in the summer areas which are going to be hot and humid. Here is a U.S. style explanation of  "Thickness"  by Jeff Haby who is a valuable source at Haby Hints for anyone who wants an explanation of a meteorological term. The thickness lines do not yet indicate winter conditions which might be thickness levels below 540 for most areas. This suggests that for the next two weeks, snow is not likely to be prevalent in CONUS other than in areas of high elevation and possibly at lower elevations in the area impacted by the trough. The above uk.sci.weather link is is an explanation for the U.K. The levels for CONUS might be slightly different. Obviously these thickness lines do not tell you about mountain peaks. The particular definition of "thickness" on this graphic may not be the best way to define the snow line and this is discussed in the link provided but it is I believe the older method and gives a first approximation which can be further refined as per the discussion in the link.

The following table is useful but designed for Europe. I was not able to find the corresponding information for the U.S. but it would not be drastically different. In the U.S., the last zero is dropped off the Thickness Level so where it says 5640 that would show as 564 in the U.S. Also remember the temperatures shown are in Centigrade. So 580 would correspond to about 80F in full sunshine during the summer. That is why I say the 582 and 576 thickness levels still showing up in the Eastern half of CONUS are a bit unusual for early December. Although this is an imprecise tool, it is useful for a first look at the situation. One can refine the tool by looking at the temperature distribution of the air column to take into account warm and cool bias the relative humidity of the air (evaporative cooling potential) and of course the altitude as higher thickness levels will produce snow at higher elevation locations.  

Thickness Table

More information on this table is available here.

The level of storm activity in the Western Pacific has declined right now with the MJO it its inactive phase. Notice the Northern Pacific is like a giant anticyclone with clockwise motion so that which gets sent west due to El Nino is to some extent returned to North America but at higher latitudes.

Western Pacific Tropical Activity

Looking at the graphic below, the cyclones generated by the warm ocean water west of Central America can provide Monsoon-like impacts for short periods if those cyclones stay close enough to the Mexican coastline. So that is what is being watched now and there seems to be an endless sequence of the storms forming. Each of these El Nino related tropical storms off the coast of Mexico has the potential, if they are close enough to shore, to introduce moisture into the circulation that enters CONUS and that was the case this summer and continues in the Fall but it is sporadic. Hurricane Sandra seems to have just disappeared although there is clearly some remnant moisture in the system.

.Eastern Pacific Tropical Storms

The graphic below is harder to look at but provides more detail on the water vapor in place which is a good proxy for where precipitation can occur. It covers a much larger area within CONUS so you can see where the moisture currently is and is going. This graphic is very good at pointing out the divisions between cloudy and not cloudy areas. As I am looking at this graphic Monday evening, I see the remnant moisture from Hurricane Sandra impacting the Southern Tier of CONUS and extending into the Mid-Atlantic States. This graphic updates automatically so it most likely will look different by the time you look at it.

 Water Vapor Imagery

Below is an analysis of projected tropical hazards and benefits over an approximately two-week period. There are two views.

The first graphic (A) is focused on the Eastern Tropical Pacific including North and South America. It updates on Friday so on Monday when I write my report, I pay most attention to this graphic for information on the tropical area of North and South America but it is mostly the week-two part of the forecast that is still relevant by the Monday following the Friday update. 

The second graphic (B) covers the same area as the first graphic but it also covers the Western Pacific and the Indian Ocean. Since it updates on Tuesday, the first graphic (A) is more current on Monday evening for the Eastern Pacific including the tropical part of North and Central America which includes the U.S. Southeast. But by Tuesday, Graphic (B) is the preferred choice for the entire area of interest.

When looking at a lot of graphics, the dates for which the graphic applies and the dates when issued and updated become very important in making sense out of the information. It is easy to draw incorrect conclusions by not considering or getting confused by the different timeframes. The below discussion is based on the two graphics as shown on Monday but they continue to auto-update during the week and may look different than what I am seeing by the time you view them.  More information on these two graphics can be found here.

Graphic "A" (which updates on Friday and from which I use the Week 2 of the forecast to look at North and South America). What is it telling us this Monday evening?

Mostly it is showing nothing for North America but the predictable El Nino impacts for South America.

Tropical Hazards

Graphic B (which updates on Tuesday and on a Monday I use the Week 2 of this Forecast to look at the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean). What is it telling us this Monday evening?

Mostly I see a dry conditions in the Western Pacific combined with the potential for cyclone development just to the east of the dry conditions.

Tropical Hazards

Remember my discussion is created on Monday and one of these two graphics updates on Tuesday and the other on Friday. When you look at this article depending on the day of the week these graphics may have updated so you need to learn how to read and interpret them yourself. The coding is very clear so that should not be difficult to do as long as you are viewing it in color.

Below is a view which highlights the surface Highs and the Lows re air pressure on Day 3. I usually only show the 6 day graphic on Page I of my report (they both are always on Page II of my report) but because of the volatility of the situation in the Pacific this time of the year, I am again showing both this week. Notice the location, geographical extent, and extreme intensity of the Aleutian Low forecast for Day 3 even though it is part of a split low. Actually one sees three lows in this Aleutian Low.

Day 3 highs and lows

Here is the Day 6 forecast  In recent weeks the projected location and strength of the Aleutian Low has varied a bit. On some days, the forecast is showing a split low with each of the two lows weaker than a combined single Low and this is not characteristic of El Nino. Right now the Aleutian Low is projected on Day 6 to not be in the most ideal location for El Nino but it has an extension to the south which changes its impact to some extent. Its hPa of 968 is quite intense (the average in the winter is 1001hPa and 994 hPa for a non-split Low). The shifting position of the Low makes a big difference. As shown, the Day 6 forecast no longer calls for the RRR to valiantly "protect" the West Coast from Pacific storms but instead is steering storms into the U.S. Northwest.  A longer discussion of the climate of Beringia and the role of the Aleutian Low is in Part II of this Report 2. Medium Frequency Cycles such as ENSO and IOD.

Day 6 Weather Forecast

Looking at the current activity of the Jet Stream one can certainly see the current trough and also the southern branch of the Jet Stream. But the wind speeds are not particularly high.

Current Jet Stream

And the forecast out five days.  Of course this is a forecast and changes daily or perhaps even more frequently. The pattern has become increasingly meridional with the Jet Stream forming troughs and ridges as it moves across CONUS often with a split stream.

Jet Stream Five Days Out

To see how the pattern is projected to evolve, please click here. The activity is projected to become quite meridional which allows troughs to bring precipitation down to lower latitudes. In addition to the shaded areas which show an interpretation of the Jet Stream, one can also see the wind vectors (arrows) at the 300 Mb level.

And when we look at Sea Surface anomalies we see a lot of them not just along the Equator related to El Nino. Today one no longer sees a fading of the warm anomaly off of Ecuador except for north of the Equator and perhaps a reduction in size of the warm anomaly around Baja California which sometimes is referred to as the "BLOB". It is an unusual occurrence which the Japanese have referred to as the California Nino. If they are correct about that, it could mean that this short cycle might reinforce the La Nina next winter.

The overall appearance of the warm anomaly along the Equator is that it is shifted to the west perhaps by 20 degrees. This El Nino did not evolve as a Modoki unless you view it as a continuation of the FAUX El Nino of last year which was a Modoki. But when NOAA selects analogs periods based on how well they match current conditions, they often select analogs that were associated with El Nino Modokis. So that has been to some extent at least the type of weather we have been having namely: weather appropriate for an El Nino Modoki. I have shown that week after week in my analysis of the NOAA analogs.

Daily SST Anomaly

The two graphics below show first the changes over the four weeks (ending November 4) as compared to the above graphic which shows the current SST anomalies and then the changes over the four weeks ending on November 24, 2015. Looking at both of these change in anomaly graphics is helpful in putting the current situation shown above into perspective.

First the four weeks ending on November 4, 2015

Nov 9, 2015 Change in Weekly SST Departures

I am also showing the new version issued today which adds three new weeks and removes the most distant week from the average change in the Sea Surface Temperature anomalies.

Nov 30, 2015 Change in Weekly STT Anomalies

These graphics are hard to interpret because they are four-week changes. But you have the daily values three graphics up. Here you see very little strengthening in the El Nino in the Nino 3.4 Measurement Area but some increase in the warm anomaly just off of Ecuador. More importantly you see the extreme cooling of the warm anomaly off of the West Coast of the U.S. (reducing the degree of PDO+) and also the pattern in the Indian Ocean eliminating the Positive IOD. The Gulf of Mexico however is warmer or less cool depending on how you want to look at it. So there are some changes taking place.

So we may have two conflicting things going on here namely a strengthening of the El Nino and a weakening of what has been reported as a positive phase of the PDO which I have considered to be associated with the El Nino and not a real phase shift. This seems to be producing a complicated pattern of sea surface temperatures (SST) and other measurements that are hard to interpret.

6 - 14 Day Outlooks

Now let us focus on the 6 - 14 Day Forecast for which I generally only show the 8 - 14 Day Maps. The 6 - 10 Day maps are available in Part II of this report.

To put the forecasts which NOAA tends to call Outlooks into perspective, I am going to show the three-month DJF and the "early" single month of December forecasts and then discuss the 8 - 14 day Maps and the 6 - 14 Day NOAA Discussion within that framework. Some of these graphics are repeats of graphics that I presented earlier as part of the discussion of the NOAA Update.

First Temperature

Here is the Three-Month Temperature Outlook issued on November 19,  2015:

DJF 2016 Temperature Outlook Issued November 19, 2015

Here is the Updated December Temperature Outlook issued on November 30, 2015.

4Outlook for December 2015 Temperatures Issued November 30, 2019

Below is the current 8 - 14 Day Temperature Outlook Map which will auto-update and thus be current when you view it. It covers the week following the current week. Today's 6 - 14 Day Outlook is just nine days 0 the month and the map shown below of the 8 to 14 day Outlook only shows seven days. The 6 - 10 Day Map is available on Page II of this report. As I view this map on November 30 (it updates each day), it appears that December may start out warmer than the full month Outlook for parts of the West and Southwest.

8-14 Day Temperature Outlook

Now Precipitation 

Here is the three-month Precipitation Outlook issued on November 19, 2015:

DJF 2016 Precipitation Outlook Issued November 19. 2015

And here is the month of December Precipitation Outlook which was updated on November 30, 2015.

December 2015 Precipitation Outlook Issued on November 30, 2015

Below is the current 8 - 14 Day Precipitation Outlook Map which will auto-update and thus be current when you view it. It covers the week following the current week. Today's 6 - 14 Day Outlook is just nine days of the month and the map shown covers seven days of the nine. The 6 - 10 Day Map (the two maps overlap) is available on Page II of this report. As I view this map on November 30 (it updates each day) and also taking the 6 - 10 Day Outlook which you can find on Page II of this Report into account, it appears that December may start out less wet than the full-month Outlook.

Current 8 - 14 Day Precipitation Outlook

Here are excerpts from the NOAA discussion released today November 30, 2015. It covers the full nine day period not just the seven days shown in the 8-14 Day Map.

6-10 DAY OUTLOOK FOR DEC 06 - 10 2015  

TODAY'S ENSEMBLE MEAN SOLUTIONS FROM THE ECMWF, GFS, AND CANADIAN ARE IN FAIRLY  GOOD AGREEMENT ON THE PREDICTED 500-HPA FLOW PATTERN OVER THE FORECAST DOMAIN.  A TROUGH OR CLOSED LOW IS FORECAST OVER THE BERING SEA. WEAK RIDGING IS  PREDICTED DOWNSTREAM OF THIS FEATURE OVER EASTERN ALASKA. FARTHER TO THE SOUTH,  MOSTLY ZONAL FLOW IS PREDICTED ACROSS THE NORTHERN TIER OF THE CONUS WHILE A  TROUGH IS PREDICTED OVER THE SOUTH-CENTRAL CONUS. MODEL SPREAD IS MODERATELY HIGH OVER THE SOUTHERN TIER OF THE CONUS AS THERE ARE DISAGREEMENTS AS TO THE PLACEMENT OF A POTENTIAL TROUGH IN THE SOUTHERN STREAM OVER THE SOUTH-CENTRAL  CONUS. THE DETERMINISTIC 0Z ECMWF PLACES THIS TROUGH OVER THE SOUTHERN HIGH  PLAINS WHILE THE TODAY'S DETERMINISTIC GFS SOLUTIONS PROGRESS THE TROUGH TOWARD  THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. DUE TO DISAGREEMENTS AMONG THE DETERMINISTIC SOLUTIONS,  A SLIGHT PREFERENCE WAS GIVEN TO THE 0Z ECMWF ENSEMBLE MEAN DUE, IN PART, TO CONSIDERATIONS OF RECENT SKILL AND ON ANALOG CORRELATIONS,  WHICH MEASURE HOW CLOSELY THE PREDICTED PATTERN MATCHES CASES THAT HAVE OCCURRED IN THE PAST. [Editor's Note: Seems like the models are now positioning that trough further west]

ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE FAVORED FOR MOST OF THE CONUS UNDERNEATH  PREDICTED ABOVE NORMAL 500-HPA HEIGHTS. THE EXCEPTION IS PARTS OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS WHERE NEAR NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE FAVORED IN ASSOCIATION WITH A TROUGH FORECAST OVER THE SOUTH-CENTRAL CONUS. THERE ARE ENHANCED PROBABILITIES OF ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES FOR PARTS OF SOUTHEAST ALASKA AHEAD OF A TROUGH PREDICTED OVER THE BERING SEA. BELOW NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE FAVORED FOR PARTS  OF THE ALEUTIANS CLOSE TO THE PREDICTED TROUGH AXIS.  

THERE ARE ENHANCED PROBABILITIES OF ABOVE MEDIAN PRECIPITATION FOR THE ALASKA  PANHANDLE AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST DUE TO PREDICTED MOIST PACIFIC FLOW. BELOW MEDIAN PRECIPITATION IS FAVORED FOR MUCH OF THE SOUTHWEST CONUS, SOUTH OF THE PREDICTED MEAN STORM TRACK. A TROUGH PREDICTED OVER THE SOUTH CENTRAL CONUS  LEADS TO ENHANCED PROBABILITIES OF ABOVE MEDIAN PRECIPITATION FOR PARTS OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS. CONVERSELY, BELOW MEDIAN PRECIPITATION IS FAVORED FOR MOST OF THE NORTHEASTERN CONUS UNDERNEATH PREDICTED ABOVE NORMAL HEIGHTS. FARTHER TO  THE SOUTH, PRECIPITATION ESTIMATES FROM THE ECMWF AND GFS ENSEMBLE MEMBERS FAVOR ABOVE MEDIAN PRECIPITATION FOR MUCH OF THE FLORIDA PENINSULA. 

FORECAST CONFIDENCE FOR THE 6-10 DAY PERIOD: AVERAGE, 3 OUT OF 5, DUE TO FAIRLY  GOOD AGREEMENT AMONG THE ENSEMBLE MEAN SOLUTIONS OFFSET BY MODERATELY HIGH  SPREAD ACROSS MUCH OF THE SOUTHERN TIER OF THE CONUS. 

8-14 DAY OUTLOOK FOR DEC 08 - 14 2015 

THE MODELS EXHIBIT GOOD AGREEMENT DURING THE 8-14 DAY PERIOD. MOST MODEL  SOLUTIONS DISPLAY BELOW NORMAL HEIGHTS OVER MUCH OF ALASKA, NEAR NORMAL HEIGHTS ALONG THE ROCKIES, AND ABOVE NORMAL HEIGHTS OVER THE EASTERN PACIFIC AND THE NORTHEAST.  THE DETERMINISTIC RUNS FROM THE GFS HAVE FLIPPED FROM YESTERDAY TO TODAY, WITH THE 0Z AND 6Z GFS RUNS DEPICTING MUCH HIGHER HEIGHTS OVER THE INTERIOR WEST. THE 12Z GFS FROM TODAY REVERSES COURSE. THAT POOR RUN-TO-RUN  CONSISTENCY ELIMINATES THE DETERMINISTIC GFS FROM CONSIDERATION TODAY, SO THE 500-HPA MANUAL HEIGHT BLEND IS CONSTRUCTED PURELY FROM ENSEMBLE MEAN SOLUTIONS.

THE 8-14 DAY UPPER-LEVEL FLOW PATTERN IS LIKELY TO FEATURE A TROUGH NEAR ALASKA, RIDGING PUSHING INTO THE WESTERN CONUS, A TROUGH OVER THE SOUTH-CENTRAL CONUS, AND ABOVE NORMAL HEIGHTS OVER THE NORTHEAST.  OVERALL, THE FORECAST PATTERN IS NOT HIGHLY AMPLIFIED OVER MUCH OF NORTH AMERICA, EXCEPT FOR THE TROUGH FORECAST WEST OF ALASKA. THAT UPPER-LEVEL PATTERN SUPPORTS ABOVE NORMAL TEMPERATURES OVER THE CONUS, WITH THE HIGHEST ODDS OVER THE GREAT LAKES AND THE LOWEST ODDS ALONG THE ROCKIES, WHERE THERE IS A FORECAST BREAK IN THE UPPER-LEVEL, ABOVE NORMAL HEIGHTS.  ABOVE AVERAGE TEMPERATURES ARE FAVORED FOR ALASKA, WHICH IS DOWNSTREAM OF THE TROUGH OVER THE BERING SEA. 

ABOVE MEDIAN PRECIPITATION IS FAVORED OVER EASTERN ALASKA, DUE TO ITS POSITION DOWNSTREAM OF THE PREDICTED MAIN TROUGH AXIS. A STRONG PACIFIC JET FAVORS ABOVE  MEDIAN PRECIPITATION FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST AND BELOW MEDIAN PRECIPITATION  FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA. THE TROUGH OVER THE SOUTH-CENTRAL CONUS FAVORS ABOVE MEDIAN PRECIPITATION FOR THE SOUTHEAST. ELSEWHERE, THE PROGRESSIVE, LOW-AMPLITUDE FLOW FAVORS NEAR NORMAL PRECIPITATION.

FORECAST CONFIDENCE FOR THE 8-14 DAY PERIOD IS: AVERAGE, 3 OUT OF 5, DUE TO  GOOD AGREEMENT AMONG THE ENSEMBLE MEAN SOLUTIONS OFFSET BY POOR RUN TO RUN CONTINUITY AMONG THE DETERMINISTIC GFS SOLUTIONS.

Some might find this analysis interesting as the organization which prepares it looks at things from a very detailed perspective and their analysis provides a lot of information on the history and evolution of this El Nino.

Analogs to Current Conditions

Now let us take a detailed look at the "Analogs" which NOAA provides related to the 5 day period centered on 3 days ago and the 7 day period centered on 4 days ago. "Analog" means that the weather pattern then resembles the recent weather pattern and was used in some way to predict the 6 - 14 day Outlook.

Here are today's analogs in chronological order although this information is also available with the analog dates listed by the level of correlation. I find the chronological order easier for me to work with. There is a second set of analogs associated with the outlook but I have not been analyzing this second set of information. This first set applies to the 5 and 7 day observed pattern prior to today. The second set which I am not using relates to the forecast outlook 6 - 10 days out to similar patterns that have occurred in the past during the dates covered by the 6 - 10 Day Outlook. That may also be useful information but they put this set of analogs in the discussion with the other set available by a link so I am assuming that this set of analogs is the most meaningful.

Analog

Centered

Day

ENSO

Phase

PDO AMO

Other Comments

Nov 9 1954 La Nina - -  
Nov 10, 1954 La Nina - -  
Dec 7, 1960 Neutral Neutral +  
Dec 13, 1986 El Nino + - Long event: perhaps two events
Dec 14, 1986 El Nino + - Long event; perhaps two events
Nov 26, 1992 Neutral + -  
Nov 12, 2004 El Nino - + Modoki Type II
Nov 13, 2004 El Nino - + Modoki Type II
Dec 7, 2006 El Nino - + Barely Long Enough to Qualify

One thing that jumped out at me right away was the wide spread among the analogs from November 9 to December 14 which is almost five weeks and there are four analogs that are future dates really suggesting that we have a mix of Fall and Meteorological Winter analogs. There are this time five El Nino Analogs and two La Nina Analogs and two ENSO Neutral Analogs so this does suggest that El Nino is a major factor in our weather over the next 6 - 14 Days but this is not fully reflected in the 6 - 14 Day Outlook released today. The phases of the ocean cycles are fairly incoherent with a slight bias towards McCabe Condition A and D which are pretty much the exact opposite of each other. Both the Atlantic and the Pacific are influencing our weather about equally. The seminal work on the impact of the PDO and AMO on U.S. climate can be found here. Water Planners might usefully pay attention to the low-frequency cycles such as the AMO and the PDO as the media tends to focus on the current and short-term forecasts to the exclusion of what we can reasonably anticipate over multi-decadal periods of time.

 McCabe Maps modified to include the subtitles

You may have to squint but the drought probabilities are shown on the map and also indicated by the color coding with shades of red indicating higher than 25% of the years are drought years (25% or less of average precipitation for that area) and shades of blue indicating less than 25% of the years are drought years. Thus drought is defined as the condition that occurs 25% of the time and this ties in nicely with each of the four pairs of two phases of the AMO and PDO.

Historical Anomaly Analysis

When I see the same dates showing up often I find it interesting to consult this list.

With respect to relating analog dates to ENSO Events, the following table might be useful. In most cases this table will allow the reader to draw appropriate conclusions from NOAA supplied analogs. If the analogs are not associated with an El Nino or La Nina they probably are not significant. Remember, an analog is indicating a similarity to a weather pattern in the past. So if the analogs are not associated with a prior El Nino or prior La Nina the computer models are not likely to generate a forecast that is consistent with an El Nino or a La Nina.

  El Ninos La Ninas
  Start Finish Max ONI PDO AMO Start Finish Max ONI PDO AMO
            DJF 1950 J FM 1951 -1.4 - N
T   JJA 1951  DJF 1952 0.9 - +          
   DJF 1953  DJF 1954 0.8 - + AMJ 1954  AMJ 1956 -1.6 - +
M MAM 1957   JJA 1958 1.7 + -          
M SON 1958  JFM 1959 0.6 + -          
M   JJA 1963  JFM 1964 1.2 - - AMJ 1964  DJF 1965 -0.8 - -
M  MJJ 1965 MAM 1966 1.8 - - NDJ 1967 MAM 1968 -0.8 - -
M OND 1968   MJJ 1969 1.0 - -          
T  JAS 1969   DJF 1970 0.8 N -  JJA 1970  DJF 1972 -1.3 - -
T AMJ 1972  FMA 1973 2.0 - - MJJ 1973 JJA 1974 -1.9 - -
            SON 1974 FMA 1976 -1.6 - -
T ASO 1976  JFM 1977 0.8 + -          
M ASO 1977  DJF 1978 0.8 N -          
M SON 1979  JFM 1980 0.6 + -          
T MAM 1982  MJJ 1983 2.1 + - SON 1984 MJJ 1985 -1.1 + -
M ASO 1986  JFM 1988 1.6 + - AMJ 1988 AMJ 1989 -1.8 - -
M MJJ 1991    JJA 1992 1.6 + -          
M SON 1994   FMA 1995 1.0 - - JAS 1995 FMA 1996 -1.0 + +
T AMJ 1997   AMJ 1998 2.3 + + JJA 1998 FMA 2001 -1.6 - +
M MJJ 2002   JFM 2003 1.3 + N          
M  JJA 2004 MAM 2005 0.7 + +          
M ASO 2006   DJF 2007 1.0 - + JAS 2007  MJJ 2008 -1.4 - +
M JJA 2009 MAM 2010 1.3 N + JJA 2010 MAM 2011 -1.4 + +
            JAS 2011 FMA 2012 -0.9 - +
T MAM 2015 NA 1.0 + N          

 

Progress of the Warm Event

Let us start with the SOI.

Below is the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) reported by Queensland, Australia. The first column is the tentative daily reading, the second is the 30 day moving/running average and the third is the 90 day moving/running average.

Date Current Reading 30-Day Average 90 Day Average
24 Nov +2.6 -5.10 -14.21
25 Nov +5.2 -4.16 -14.00
26 Nov -3.9 -3.49 -13.88
27 Nov -11.9 -2.86 -13.76
28 Nov -22.8 -2.72 -13.71
29 Nov -24.5 -2.99 -13.79
30 Nov -16.1 -3.23 -13.81

The Inactive Phase of the MJO is playing out so we are again seeing negative values of the SOI. The Active Phase may be with us for most of December and then switch back to the Inactive Phase in January.

The MJO or Madden Julian Oscillation is an important factor in regulating the SOI and Kelvin Waves and other tropical weather characteristics. More information on the MJO can be found here. Here is another good resource and it shows that right now the MJO is active in the Indian Ocean. Some believe it will be active in the Western Pacific soon and the SOI readings above tend to make me think they are correct about that.

The 30-day average, which is the most widely used measure, on November 30 is reported at -3.23 which is no longer a reading associated with an El Nino (usually required to be more negative than -8.0 but some consider -6.0 value good enough) and very significantly less negative (El Nino-ish) than last week. The 90-day average also is declining but still in El Nino territory at -13.81 which is also a bit less El Nino-ish than last week given that it is a 90-day average.  The SOI no longer remains indicative of an El Nino Event in progress. This past week there have been late in the week some fairly extreme values but nothing like earlier when we had some values in the -40's or the much lower values that were recorded during the 1997/1998 Super-El Nino. We may see another round of higher (negative) SOI values in December and that might be the end of it. 

Low-Level Wind Anomalies

Here are the low-level wind anomalies. In October, the area from 180W to 160W was of interest and quite intense. There then was an area of interest at 160W which also was quite intense. Now, calm appears to prevail but that likely will change as the MJO changes phase and becomes more active. 

Low Level Wlind Anomalies

In the below graphic, you can see how the convection pattern (really cloud tops) no longer shows the pronounced pattern that has existed for a number of months. This is especially evident to the west of the Date Line.

OLR Anomalies Along the Equator

Let us now take a look at the progress of Kelvin Waves which are the key to the situation. Since February there have been three successive "genuine" downwelling Kelvin Waves without really an upwelling Kelvin Wave of any consequence to counter their impact. The first wave which started in February was the most effective at getting this El Nino started. The second wave reinforced to some extent but not much and this third (and I had believed would be the last) downwelling Kelvin Wave has created an El Nino that will have a major peak coming soon and an extended life but at a diminished strength. We now see a fourth Kelvin wave which will extend the life of this El Nino. The most extreme temperature anomaly colored gray in the graphic, is beginning to slowly cover a smaller part of the Equator but has shifted to the east and is now located at 132W to 98W which means a smaller portion is in the ONI/Nino 3.4 Measurement Area namely the part that is between 132W and 120W. We also see a slow steady retreat to the east of the western extreme of this pattern. There is also an expansion to the east of the cold anomaly which is undercutting the warm anomaly. NOAA has now recognized this as the upwelling phase of Kelvin Wave #4.

I can not tell the extent to which the problems with TAO/TRITON have compromised this graphic. Not sure it is even utilized to prepare this graphic. At any rate the issues with the TAO/TRITON System are being resolved so if there has been an impact, that should not be an issue going forward.

Kelvin Waves Auto-updates

We are now going to change the way we look at a three dimensional view of the Equator and move from the surface view to the view from the surface down. When I examine the current situation as compared to the 1997/1998 El Nino which I described graphically recently, the current El Nino has developed more rapidly. This El Nino is a couple of months further along in its evolution than the 1997/1998 El Nino and I previously thought that would result in this El Nino ending earlier in the winter than the 1997/1998 El Nino. Also the 1997/1998 had a slightly larger amount of warm subsurface water in the Eastern Pacific and that water takes time to surface, create convection, and thus cool. Something happens to allow the Easterlies to resume their strength and that in turn moves this water back towards the Western Pacific Warm Pool. This El Nino appears to be fading slowly from west to east. The real decline will be from east to west so that may be starting but has not progressed to any large extent as yet but there are signs that it is beginning.

One should keep in mind that for a new Kelvin Wave, the period of time from initiation to the termination of impacts is about six months. So when you have four in a row, the pattern of impacts on different indices and geographic areas becomes quite complex. It is further complicated as you can see above because the Kelvin Waves do not necessarily originate at the same location i.e. longitude. Looking at many factors I have come to a conclusion that his El Nino may have the greatest impact on CONUS during Jan - Feb - Mar of 2016 rather than in Dec 2015 and Jan - Feb of 2016. The impacts may start a bit later and last a bit longer.

Current Sub-Surface Conditions

 

Subsurface Heat Anomalies

Top Graphic (Anomalies)

The above graphic showing the current situation has an upper and lower graphic.  The bottom graphic shows the absolute values, the upper graphic shows anomalies compared to what one might expect at this time of the year in the various areas both 130E to 90W Longitude and from the surface down to 450 meters.

The top graphic is still the most useful of the two and shows where 2C (anomaly) water is impacting the area in which the ONI is measured i.e. 170W to 120W. The 2C anomaly now extends to 180W which is very impressive.The 3C anomaly now extends to beyond 160W so I am viewing the 3C anomaly as still encompassing 80% of the Nino 3.4 Measurement Area for the ONI. It explains why NOAA is coming up with such high ONI estimates. The 4C anomaly is now intersecting the surface at 130W to 120W. 

It is important to differentiate between anomalies and actual temperature. The warm anomaly shown in the upper graphic is not covered by colder water as it might appear to be in the upper graphic but is shown as a warm anomaly because normally water at those depths is colder than it currently is. That is why this warm anomaly does not simply rise to the surface as warm water would normally do but it is preventing cooler water from entering the area as one would expect as summer transitions to Fall. That is why it takes time for this warm anomaly to dissipate.  

Bottom Graphic (Absolute Values which highlights the Thermocline)

The bottom half of the graphic may soon become more useful in terms of tracking the progress of this Warm Event as it converts to ENSO Neutral and then La Nina. It shows the thermocline between warm and cool water which pretty much looks like this as shown here during a Warm Event. You can see that the cooler water is not yet fully making it to the surface to the east along the coast of Ecuador. In fact, the 25C Isotherm no longer reaches the surface. We now will pay more attention to the 28C Isotherm as west of that temperature is where convection is more easy to occur. Right now that Isotherm intersects the surface near 130W which has been the case for some time but it appears to have moved a bit to the east which is consistent with the El Nino still intensifying.

TAO/TRITON GRAPHIC

Taking a close look at the current TAO/TRITON graphic but first let us compare the situation as reported on October 4

Oct 4, 2015 TAO/TRITON

to the most recent graphic shown below. Remember each graphic has two parts the top part is the average values, the bottom part is those values expressed as an anomaly compared to the expected values for that date. Generally I am mainly discussing the bottom of the pairs of graphics namely the anomalies.

 Current SST and wind anomalies

Location Bar for Nino 3.4 Area Above
-----------------------------------------------  A      B      C      D      E      ----------------

With the current graphic, there is again a lot of resemblance to the situation on October 4.

I have been advised that: "New buoys have been deployed and more data are coming in now. This accounts for the more consistent looking graphics now."   Thus we can place more reliance on the TAO/TRITON graphic at this point in time. Please keep in mind that some of my interpretations over the past several weeks were related to the missing buoys in the TAO/TRITON system. Kudos to PMEL for getting this problem fixed so quickly.

The new Kelvin Wave (#4) over at 170W appears to have merged with the overall warm pool. The 2C anomaly on Oct 4 was showing all the way over to 170W. Now it extends even further to the west.This graphic changes quite a bit from day to day so my commentary can be out of date as quickly as tomorrow. The 3C anomaly now extends to 150W. We can now see a 3.5C Isotherm which is only impacting the ONI/Nino 3.4 measurement marginally because it does not extend to 5 degrees North and 5 degrees South of the Equator. The Easterlies are diminished but now show as Easterlies almost everywhere (top graphic) which is different than recently when the anomalies were so strong that west of 150W they showed as having been converted into Westerlies. That could be an indication that the conditions for maintaining this El Nino are slowly changing.

I calculate the ONI each week using a method that I have devised. To refine my calculation, I have divided the 170W to 120W ONI measuring area into five subregions (which I have designated from west to east as A through E) with a location bar shown under the TAO/TRITON Graphic). I use a rough estimation approach to integrate what I see below and record that in the table I have constructed. Then I take the average of the anomalies I estimated for each of the five subregions. So as of Monday November 30 in the afternoon working from the November 29 TAO/TRITON report, this is what I calculated.

Calculation of ONI from TAO/TRITON Graphic
Anomaly Segment Estimated Anomaly
A. 170W to 160W 2.5
B. 160W to 150W 2.6
C. 150W to 140W 3.0
D. 140W to 130W 3.1
E. 130W to 120W 3.2
Total 14.4
Total divided by five subregions i.e. the ONI (14.4)/5 = 2.9

My estimate of the Nino 3.4 ONI after rounding has increased (probably due to the better quality of the TAO/TRITON Graphic) to 2.9. NOAA has today reported the weekly ONI as being 3.0 insignificantly lower than last week but still WOW! I have already discussed the issues with the TAO/TRITON graphic which could cause me to underestimate the ONI but those issues are either resolved or in the process of being resolved. Nino 4.0 is now reported as being 1.8, the same as last last week, which probably reflects the passage of the new and fourth Kelvin Wave. Nino 3.0 is now being reported as 3.0 the same as last week.  I believe it peaked at 3.7 during the El Nino of 1997/1998. This is one of many reasons for thinking that this El Nino is shifted to the west to some extent.

The action which I think is most important to track right now is in Nino 1+2 which is now reported as being 2.4 which is substantially higher than last week. One issue remains the extent to which warm water off of Ecuador and Peru impacts CONUS weather. I think it has very little impact except from the tropical storms that move up the west coast of Central America and sometimes contribute moisture to the circulation over CONUS. Most El Ninos decay from east to west so it will be observed most clearly first in Nino 1+2 and we are now probably seeing that process starting but very slowly.

This is summarized in the following NOAA Tables and I am showing both the table for five weeks ago and the updated table. 

Oct 5, 2015 NINO Departures

And here are the values this week.

November 30, 2015 NINO Departures

One can in the bottom chart on the right see the significant decline in the Nino 1+2 measurement area but it has increased this week. That is probably the impact of Kelvin Wave #3 but should be short lived. This is confirmed in a graphic that I present later. I think it is quite possible that this El Nino has now peaked and has begun its decline. But NOAA is still reporting increases in the ONI value but not this week.

One wonders about these calculations as they appear to not be related to the "adjusted" version of the NOAA forecast model which was discussed recently. So it is not clear to me how this El Nino will be officially recorded. August-September-October  has been recorded as having an ONI of 1.7. In the above graphic eyeballing it you might conclude that the three months were observed as being 2.0, 2.3 and 2.4. So the impact of adjusting these observed values to what is considered "adjusted" is not obvious to me. If 2.0, 2.3, and 2.4 when averaged and adjusted come to 1.7 how should we interpret the unadjusted weekly value of 3.1? To me it is meaningless but I dutifully report it.

Although I discussed the Kelvin Waves earlier, now seems to be the best place to show the evolution of the subsurface temperatures.

Nov 30 Kelvin Wave History

I do not see much change week to week and it is hard to know if that is reality or the issues with TAO/TRITON which apparently have been partially resolved and will be fully resolved soon. I am not sure of the source of the data for this graphic so I do not know if it is fully dependent on TAO/TRITON as there are other sources of information but I would think that TAO/TRITON was the primary source of current information.  A couple of things are interesting. The cool anomaly in the west under the warm anomaly is slowly creeping east undercutting the warm anomaly and now is now east of 150W. In the east at around 100W it still looks like the warm anomaly is gradually splitting into two pieces but the picture is a bit different as we now see some of the warm anomaly to the east extending deeper. This sequence of four Kelvin Waves has made for a complex pattern.

SST Surface Anomaly Hovmoeller

Here is another way of looking at it: Unlike the Upper Ocean Heat Anomaly Hovmoeller (I call it the Kelvin Wave Hovmoeller) which takes an average down to 300 meters, this just measures the surface temperature anomaly. It is the surface that interacts with the atmosphere. A major advantage of the Hovmoeller method of displaying information is that it shows the history so I do not need to show a sequence of snap shots of the conditions at different points in time. Nevertheless this Hovmoeller provides a good way to visually see the evolution of this El Nino and later track its demise. One can easily see the historical evolution of this El Nino and also the current "hot spots" that are showing up and leading to the very high ONI readings. But one can also see the western edge of the warm anomaly starting to shift to the East. 

SST Anomalies Hovmoeller

Recent Impacts of Weather Mostly El Nino but possibly Also PDO and AMO Impacts.

First the Temperature and Precipitation Departures from five months ago (Ending Date June 13)

June 15, 2015 30 Day Temperature and Precipitation Departures.

Then the same graphic one month later (Ending Date July 11)

July 13, 2015 30 Day Temperature and Preciptiation Departures

And then the same graphic (Ending Date August 8). 

August 10 2015 30 Day Temperature and Precipitation Departures

And now the view from September 5 which is one month later. 

Sept 5, 2015 30 Day Temperature and Precipitation Departures

And again four weeks later (Ending Date October 3, 2015)

Oct 3, 2015 30 day Temperature and Precipitation Departures

And again four weeks later (Ending Date October 31, 2015)

30 day Temperature and Precipitation Departures

This provides a six-month sequence of snapshots of the four-week departures from normal as this El Nino has progressed.

You can see these graphics as well as I can and it is difficult to describe the changes that have taken place over six periods of time because of the large number of changes. Currently we see:

  • A general pattern of fairly extreme warm anomalies in most of CONUS especially the West.
  • What suddenly looks like an El Nino pattern in the Southwest and Mexico re wetter than climatology. It is the first sign of it. We also see the impact of the storm that impacted South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia.

And one more:

30 Day Temperature and Precipitation Departures as of November 14

Strangely, it looks generally warmer and bit wetter but the warmer is fairly unusual for El Nino especially in the Southwest. But this is a 30 day average. I have not shown the graphic from last week but the warm areas are a bit less intense than last week and that should change a lot by next week. The wet areas are a typical El Nino pattern but that might change by next week if the Jet Stream remains mostly to the north.

And one more. And here you see some major changes which is a bit of a surprise given that the difference between the below graphic and one above is just seven days out of thirty.

November 30, 2015 30 day temperature and precipitation departures.

I realize this is a lot of graphics but one needs to look at the history of an event to assess it and this 30 average really shows the shift in the temperature pattern and precipitation pattern. The wet area is the Central part of CONUS not the Southwest but the Southeast is joining in. The warm anomaly has shifted east but not when you look at today's 8. - 14 Day Temperature Outlook. There has been less (but still some) impact from tropical storms moving up the west coast of Mexico. The Northeast has been dry.

El Nino in the News

Nothing to report today

Putting it all Together.

The El Nino I believe has peaked in intensity and plateaued but NOAA continues to report ever increasing values for the ONI. The actual impacts on CONUS are not clear. We started in the Spring by having wetter conditions than usual in the Southwest but that has tapered off quite a bit although that is starting to change. The El Nino has probably been influencing the IOD to tend towards being positive thus providing a double whammy for parts of Asia and Australia. Indonesia and the Philippines have been hit by drought. It seems though that the positive IOD has run its course and the drought in the Western Pacific is moderating.

The length and intensity of this El Nino is still not clear mostly in terms of whether or not it will extend into the early part of 2016. There does not seem to be an obvious match to any prior El Nino in the modern era which to me means there is no model to use to predict impacts. That is a complicated subject which is probably best dealt with on a post mortem basis. 

We may or may not have a Pacific Climate Shift as the PDO+ may be simply related to the Warm Event and quite frankly at this point appears to be and may be moving back to PDO Negative. But for now we do have PDO+. The AMO being an overturning may be more predictable so the Neutral status moving towards AMO- is probably fairly reliable but not necessarily proceeding in a straight line as indeed the storm track for hurricanes in the Atlantic is suddenly unusually warm. 

So in terms of long-term forecasting, none of this is very difficult to figure out actually if you are looking at say a five-year or longer forecast. The research on Ocean Cycles is fairly conclusive and widely available to those who seek it out. I have provided a lot of information on this in prior weeks and all of that information is preserved in Part II of my report in the Section on Low Frequency Cycles 3. Low Frequency Cycles such as PDO, AMO, IOBD, EATS.  It includes decade by decade predictions through 2050. Predicting a particular year is far harder.

We are beginning to speculate on the winter of 2016/2017 which it now seems increasingly likely will be a La Nina. One thing that is fairly certain for the U.S.is that compared to this winter the following winter is projected to be:

  • warmer in the south and less warm in the north and
  • more dry in the south and less dry in the north

The below is the recently issued CPC/IRI forecast (which has not been updated since last week) and you can see the rapid shift away from El Nino that is now predicted starting in AMJ and really showing up in MJJ 2016 i.e. late Spring early Summer 2016.

Nov 23, 2015 CPC-IRI ENSO Probabilities.

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR PART II OF THIS REPORT  The links below may take you directly to the set of information that you have selected but in some Internet Browsers it may first take you to the top of Page II where there is a TABLE OF CONTENTS and take a few extra seconds to get you to the specific section selected. If you do not feel like waiting, you can click a second time within the TABLE OF CONTENTS to get to the specific part of the webpage that interests you. 

A. Worldwide Weather: Current and Three-Month Outlooks: 15 Month Outlooks  (Usefully bookmarked as it provides automatically updated current weather conditions and forecasts at all times. It does not replace local forecasts but does provide U.S. national and regional forecasts and, with less detail, international forecasts)

B. Factors Impacting the Outlook

1. Very High Frequency (short-term) Cycles PNA, AO,NAO (but the AO and NAO may also have a low frequency component.)

2. Medium Frequency Cycles such as ENSO and IOD

3. Low Frequency Cycles such as PDO, AMO, IOBD, EATS.

C. Computer Models and Methodologies

D. Reserved for a Future Topic  (Possibly Predictable Economic Impacts)

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR PART III OF THIS REPORT - GLOBAL WARMING WHICH SOME CALL CLIMATE CHANGE. The links below may take you directly to the set of information that you have selected but in some Internet Browsers it may first take you to the top of Page III where there is a TABLE OF CONTENTS and take a few extra seconds to get you to the specific section selected. If you do not feel like waiting, you can click a second time within the TABLE OF CONTENTS to get to the specific part of the webpage that interests you.

D1. Introduction

D2. Climate Impacts of Global Warming

D3. Economic Impacts of Global Warming

D4. Reports from Around the World on Impacts of Global Warming

Click here for a list of Sig Silber's Weather Posts

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