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posted on 26 August 2016

Second Estimate 2Q2016 GDP Revised Insignificantly Downward to 1.1%

Written by Doug Short and Steven Hansen

The second estimate of second quarter 2016 Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a positive 1.1 %. This is an insignificant decrease from the advance estimate's +1.2 % if one looks at quarter-over-quarter headline growth. Year-over-year growth declined from the previous quarter. There was no major reason for the decline in GDP - just minor downward adjustments to inventories and government spending.

The market expected:

Seasonally Adjusted Quarter-over-Quarter Change at annual rate Consensus Range Consensus Advance Actual 2nd Estimate Actual
Real GDP 0.8 % to 1.5 % +1.1 % +1.2 % +1.1 %
GDP price index 2.2 % to 2.2 % +2.2 % +2.2 % +2.4 %
  • Headline GDP is calculated by annualizing one quarter's data against the previous quarters data. A better method would be to look at growth compared to the same quarter one year ago. For 2Q2016, the year-over-year growth is 1.2 % (unchanged from the advance estimate) - moderately down from the 1Q2016's 1.6 % year-over-year growth. So one might say that the rate of GDP growth decelerated 0.4% from the previous quarter.

Real GDP Expressed As Year-over-Year Change

This second estimate released today is based on more complete source data than were available for the "advance" estimate issued last month. (See caveats below.)

Real GDP per Capita

The table below compares the previous quarter estimate of GDP (Table 1.1.2) with the this quarter which shows:

  • consumption for goods and services improved.
  • trade balance improved
  • there was significant inventory change removing 1.26% from GDP
  • there was slower fixed investment growth
  • there was less government spending

The table below highlights the significant differences the previous quarter and current quarter's estimate (green = improvement, red = decline).

[click on image to enlarge]

What the BEA says about the second estimate of GDP:

Real gross domestic product increased at an annual rate of 1.1 percent in the second quarter of 2016 (table 1), according to the "second" estimate released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. In the first quarter, real GDP increased 0.8 percent.

The GDP estimate released today is based on more complete source data than were available for the "advance" estimate issued last month. In the advance estimate, the increase in real GDP was 1.2 percent. With this second estimate for the second quarter, the general picture of economic growth remains the same; revisions to the components of GDP are small.

Real gross domestic income (GDI) increased 0.2 percent in the second quarter, compared with an increase of 0.8 percent in the first (revised). The average of real GDP and real GDI, a supplemental measure of U.S. economic activity that equally weights GDP and GDI, increased 0.6 percent in the second quarter, compared with an increase of 0.8 percent in the first.

The increase in real GDP in the second quarter primarily reflected positive contributions from personal consumption expenditures (PCE) and exports that were partly offset by negative contributions from private inventory investment, residential fixed investment, state and local government spending and nonresidential fixed investment. Imports, which are a subtraction in the calculation of GDP, increased.

Inflation continues to moderate as the "deflator" which adjusts the current value GDP to a "real" comparable value continues to moderate. The following compares the GDP deflator to the Consumer Price Index:

BLS explaination of the changes to 2Q2016 GDP:

The downward revision to the percent change in real GDP primarily reflected downward revisions to state and local government spending and to private inventory investment and an upward revision to imports. These were partly offset by upward revisions to nonresidential fixed investment and to PCE.

Overview Analysis:

Here is a look at Quarterly GDP since Q2 1947. Prior to 1947, GDP was calculated annually. To be more precise, the chart shows is the annualized percent change from the preceding quarter in Real (inflation-adjusted) Gross Domestic Product. We've also included recessions, which are determined by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Also illustrated are the 3.22% average (arithmetic mean) and the 10-year moving average, currently at 1.31 percent.

Note: The headline 1.1% real compounded rate of change is 1.10% (unchanged) at two decimal places.

Here is a log-scale chart of real GDP with an exponential regression, which helps us understand growth cycles since the 1947 inception of quarterly GDP. The latest number puts us 15.1% below trend, the largest negative spread in the history of this series, a bit wider than the -15.0% in the Advance Estimate.

A particularly telling representation of slowing growth in the US economy is the year-over-year rate of change. The average rate at the start of recessions is 3.35%. All eleven recessions over this timeframe have begun at a higher level of real YoY GDP.

Real GDP Year-over-Year

In summary, the Q2 GDP Second Estimate of 1.1 percent was the generally expected small downward revision to the Advance Estimate of 1.2 percent.

The chart below is a way to visualize real GDP change since 2007. The chart uses a stacked column chart to segment the four major components of GDP with a dashed line overlay to show the sum of the four, which is real GDP itself. As the analysis clear shows, personal consumption is key factor in GDP mathematics.

Click to View

Caveats on the Use of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

GDP is market value of all final goods and services produced within the USA where money is used in the transaction - and it is expressed as an annualized number. GDP = private consumption + gross investment + government spending + (exports − imports), or GDP = C + I + G + (X - M). GDP counts monetary expenditures. It is designed to count value added so that goods are not counted over and over as they move through the manufacture - wholesale - retail chain.

The vernacular relating to the different GDP releases:

"Advance" estimates, based on source data that are incomplete or subject to further revision by the source agency, are released near the end of the first month after the end of the quarter; as more detailed and more comprehensive data become available, "second" and "third" estimates are released near the end of the second and third months, respectively. The "latest" estimates reflect the results of both annual and comprehensive revisions.

Consider that GDP includes the costs of suing your neighbor or McDonald's for hot coffee spilled in your crotch, plastic surgery or cancer treatment, buying a new aircraft carrier for the military, or even the replacement of your house if it burns down - yet little of these activities is real economic growth.

GDP does not include include home costs (other than the new home purchase price even though mortgaged up the kazoo), interest rates, bank charges, or the money spent buying anything used.

It does not measure wealth, disposable income, or employment.

In short, GDP does not measure the change of the economic environment for Joe Sixpack in 1970, and Joe Sixpack's kid, yet pundits continuously compare GDP across time periods.

Although there always will be some correlation between all economic pulse points, GDP does not measure the economic elements that directly impact the quality of life of its citizens.

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