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posted on 06 May 2016

BLS Jobs Growth Rate Declined In April 2016.

Written by Steven Hansen

The BLS job situation headlines were relatively softer. Jobs growth decelerated this month - and the previous month's data was downwardly revised. Economic intuitive sectors remained positive.

  • The rate of growth for employment decelerated this month (red line on graph below).

Unadjusted Non-Farm Private Employment - Year-over-Year Change (blue bars - left axis) and Year-over-Year Growth Acceleration / Deceleration From Previous Month (red line - right axis)

z bls2.png

  • The unadjusted jobs increase month-over-month was average for times of economic expansion.
  • Economic intuitive sectors of employment were positive.
  • This month's report internals (comparing household to establishment data sets) was significantly inconsistent with the household survey showing seasonally adjusted employment declining 316,000 vs the headline establishment number of growing 160,000. The point here is that part of the headlines are from the household survey (such as the unemployment rate) and part is from the establishment survey (job growth). From a survey control point of view - the common element is jobs growth - and if they do not match, your confidence in either survey is diminished. [note that the household survey includes ALL jobs growth, not just non-farm).
  • The household survey removed 362,000 people to the workforce.

A summary of the employment situation:

  • BLS reported: 160K (non-farm) and 171K (non-farm private). Unemployment rate unchanged at 5.0%.
  • ADP reported: 156 K (non-farm private)
  • In Econintersect's April 2016 economic forecast released in late March, we estimated non-farm private payroll growth at 125,000 (based on economic potential) and 240,000 (fudged based on current overrun of economic potential);
  • NFIB comments on this Jobs Report is towards the end of this post.
  • The market expected (from Bloomberg):
Seasonally Adjusted Data Consensus Range Consensus Actual
Nonfarm Payrolls - M/M change 175,000 to 245,000 200,000 160,000
Unemployment Rate - Level 4.8 % to 5.0 % 4.9 % 5.0 %
Private Payrolls - M/M change 165,000 to 235,000 195,000 171,000
Average Hourly Earnings - M/M change 0.2 % to 0.4 % 0.3 % +0.3 %
Av Workweek - All Employees
34.4 hrs to 34.5 hrs
34.5 hrs 34.5 hrs

The BLS reports seasonally adjusted data - manipulated with multiple seasonal adjustment factors, and Econintersect believes the unadjusted data gives a clearer picture of the jobs situation.

Non-seasonally adjusted non-farm payrolls improved 1,051,000 - worse than last year but average for April's in times of economic expansion.

Historical Unadjusted Private Non-Farm Jobs Growth Between Marchs and Aprils (Table B-1, data in thousands) - unadjusted (blue line) vs seasonally adjusted (red line)

bls non-adjusted change.PNG

Last month's employment gains were revised downward.

Change in Seasonally Adjusted Non-Farm Payrolls Between Originally Reported (blue bars) and Current Estimates (red bars)

z bls1.png

Most of the analysis below uses unadjusted data, and presents an alternative view to the headline data.

Unemployment

The BLS reported U-3 (headline) unemployment was 5.0 % with the U-6 "all in" unemployment rate (including those working part time who want a full time job) improved from 9.8 % to 9.7 %. These numbers are volatile as they are created from the household survey.

BLS U-3 Headline Unemployment (red line, left axis), U-6 All In Unemployment (blue line, left axis), and Median Duration of Unemployment (green line, right axis)

Econintersect has an interpretation of employment supply slack using the BLS employment-population ratio, demonstrated by the graph below. The employment-population ratio declined 0.2 to 59.7.

Employment-Population Ratio

The jobs picture - when the employment / population as a whole - has been on an uptrend since mid-2011 - even with the significant decline this month. This ratio is determined by household survey.

  • Econintersect uses employment-populations ratios to monitor the jobless situation. The headline unemployment number requires the BLS to guess at the size of the workforce, then guess again who is employed or not employed. In employment - population ratios, the population is a given and the guess is who is employed.
  • This ratio has been in a general uptrend since the beginning of 2014. The employment-population ratio tells you the percent of the population with a job. Each 0.1% increment represents approximately 300,000 jobs. [Note: these are seasonally adjusted numbers - and we are relying on the BLS to get this seasonal adjustment factor correct]. An unchanged ratio would be telling you that jobs growth was around 150,000 - as this is approximately the new entries to the labor market caused by population growth.

Employment Metrics

The growth trend in the establishment survey's non-farm payroll was trending up beginning of 2014 but has been trending down beginning in 2015. This month there was a decline.

Unadjusted Non-Farm Payrolls Year-over-Year Growth

Another way to view employment is to watch the total hours worked.

Percent Change Year-over-Year Non-Farm Private Weekly Hours Worked

The bullets below use seasonally adjusted data from the establishment survey except where indicated:

  • Average hours worked (table B-2) improved 0.1 to 34.5. A rising number normally indicates an expanding economy .
  • Government employment declined 11,000 (11K) with the Federal Government down 9K, state governments down 2K and local governments unchanged.
  • The big contributor to employment growth this month was health care and social assistance (38.2K).
  • Manufacturing was was up 4K, and construction was up 1K.
  • The unemployment rate (from household survey) for people between 20 and 24 (Table A-10) degraded from 8.4% to 8.8%. This number is produced by survey and is very volatile.
  • Average hourly earnings (Table B-3) was was up $0.08 to $25.53.

Private Employment: Average Hourly Earnings

Economic Metrics

Economic markers used to benchmark economic growth (all from the establishment survey).

The truck employment was up 0.7K.

Truck Transport Employment - Year-over-Year Change

Temporary help improved 9.3K.

Temporary Help Employment - Year-over-Year Change

Econintersect believes the transport sector is a forward indicator. Others look at temporary help as a forward indicator.

Food for Thought

Who are the victims in this mediocre employment situation. It is not people over 55.

Index of Employment Levels - 55 and up (blue line), 45 to 54 (red line), 35 to 44 (green line), 25 to 34 (purple line), 20 to 24 (light blue line), and 16 to 19 (orange line)

Women are doing better than men.

Index of Employment Levels - Men (blue line) vs Women (red line)

Mom and Pop employment remains below recessionary levels.

The less education one has, the less chance of finding a job.

Index of Employment Levels - University graduate (blue line), Some college or AA degree (orange line), high school graduates (green line), and high school dropouts (red line)

Here is an indexed view of employment levels.

Index of Employment Levels (from the BLS Establishment Survey) - Hispanic (blue line), African American (red line), and White (green line)

However, keep in mind that population growth is different for each group. Here is a look at employment to population ratios which clearly shows NO group has recovered from the Great Recession:

Employment / Population Ratios (from the BLS Household Survey) - Hispanic (blue line), African American (red line), and White (green line)

NFIB comment on this Month's BLS Job Situation

NFIB's chief economist William C. Dunkelberg, issued the following comments on employment this month:

A large portion of small business owners reported that they were hiring or trying to hire, yet job creation turned slightly negative in April, according to the Jobs Report released Thursday.

For the first four months of 2016, job creation has been stagnant. Month after month we see no strong direction in our jobs report. This month hiring activities increased, but apparently applicants are not qualified for the open positions."

The average employment change during the month of April decreased to an average loss of 0.08 workers per firm. Twelve percent reported increasing employment an average 2.2 workers per firm while 13 percent reported reducing employment an average of 3.5 workers per firm. Up 5 points, 53 percent of owners reported hiring or trying to hire. Of those trying to hire, 87 percent reported few or no qualified applicants for the positions that they were trying to fill. Twelve percent of owners cited the difficulty of finding qualified workers as their Single Most Important Problem, a high reading for this recovery. Twenty-nine percent of all owners reported job openings that they could not fill in the current period, which is up 4 points. A seasonally adjusted net 11 percent plan to create new jobs, up 2 points from March.

For several months, owners have been reporting that finding qualified workers is the third 'Single Most Important Business Problem' behind taxes and government regulations and red tape. Small business owners want to hire and that is clear from our data, but they're scrambling to find applicants to fill open positions.

The April jobs number will remain weak, close to the 200,000 mark with little change in the unemployment rate.

Results of the full survey will be released on Tuesday, May 10th.

job-creation-plans-nfib

jobs-data-nfib

Caveat on the use of BLS Jobs Data

The monthly headline data ends up being significantly revised for months after the initial release - and is subject also to annual revisions. The question remains how seriously can you take the data when first released.

The above graphic (updated through October 2011) is the month-over-month change in employment based on the original headline non-farm employment level and the current stated employment levels at month end. You will note some pretty drastic backward revision for a major economic release the market reacts to in real time.

Econintersect Contributor Jeff Miller has the following description of BLS methodology:

  1. An initial report of a survey of establishments. Even if the survey sample was perfect (and we all know that it is not) and the response rate was 100% (which it is not) the sampling error alone for a 90% confidence interval is +/- 100K jobs.
  2. The report is revised to reflect additional responses over the next two months.
  3. There is an adjustment to account for job creation — much maligned and misunderstood by nearly everyone.
  4. The final data are benchmarked against the state employment data every year. This usually shows that the overall process was very good, but it led to major downward adjustments at the time of the recession. More recently, the BLS estimates have been too low.

Econintersect has repeatedly pointed out questions about how the seasonal adjustment algorithms and data gathering methodology used by the BLS introduce uncertainty into interpretation of month to month changes in employment.

Econintersect believes the simplistic sampling extrapolation technique of ADP yields a far better picture of the employment situation than the complicated, convoluted Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) methodology. However, ADP is using a new methodology beginning with the October 2012 data - and only time will tell if their new approach was as good as their old one.

ADP (blue line) versus BLS (red line) - Monthly Jobs Growth Comparison

Because of the differences in methodology, many pundits ignore the ADP numbers - while waiting for the BLS numbers. Although there can be a low correlation in a particular month, the different methodologies tend to balance out, and the correlations are excellent outside of the data turning points. We are now 16 months past the post recession turning point in employment.

However, there is some discussion that neither the ADP nor BLS numbers are correct - as both are derived by a sampling methodology. The answer could be that there is no correct answer in real time - and that it is best to look at the trends. As has been noted, all eventually end up correlating.

The BLS uses seasonal adjusted data for its headline numbers. The seasonally adjusted employment data is produced by an algorithm. The following graph which shows unadjusted job growth - seasonal adjustments spread employment growth over the entire year. Employment does not really grow in the second half of the year and always falls significantly in January.

Non-Seasonally Adjusted Employment - Private Sector

There is the proverbial question on what is minimal jobs growth each month required to allow for new entrants to the market. Depending on mindset, this answer varies. According to Investopdia, the number is between 100,000 and 150,000. The Wall Street Journal is citing 125K. Mark Zandi said 150K. Econintersect is going with Mark Zandi's number:

  • In Econintersect's June 2014 economic forecast released in late May, we estimated non-farm payroll growth at 160,000 (unadjusted based on economic potential) and 229,000 (fudged based on current overrun of economic potential).
  • If Econintersect uses employment - population ratios, the correct number would be the number where this ratio improved. Using the graph below, the ratio began to improve starting a little after mid-year. This corresponds to the period where the 12 month rolling average of job gains hit 150,000.

Employment to Population Ratio

Note: The ratio could be fine tuned by adjusting to the ratio of employment to working age population rather than the total population. However, this would not change the big picture that an increase of somewhere around 150,000 (+/-) is needed for the growing population numbers. We have estimated 140k - 160k. The number might possibly be within the range 125k - 175k. Econintersect cannot find reason to support the estimates below 125k.

The question of how changing demographics impact the employment numbers is at the margins of analysis. Econintersect will publish more on this fine tuning going forward, both in-house research and the work of others.



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