econintersect .com

FREE NEWSLETTER: Econintersect sends a nightly newsletter highlighting news events of the day, and providing a summary of new articles posted on the website. Econintersect will not sell or pass your email address to others per our privacy policy. You can cancel this subscription at any time by selecting the unsubscribing link in the footer of each email.

posted on 29 June 2015

Infographic Of The Day: How NASA's Gemini Spacecraft Worked

To follow the successful series of Mercury flights, NASA planned the Gemini spacecraft for the mid-1960s.

Gemini’s goals were to test astronauts on long-duration Earth orbit flights; to practice orbital rendezvous and docking, which was a requirement for moon landing missions; and to practice re-entry and landing.
Of the 18.5-foot (5.61 meters) Gemini spacecraft, only the conical re-entry module would return to Earth. The 90-cubic-foot (2.55 cubic meters) pressure vessel would be home for two astronauts for up to 14 days.
Like Mercury, the Gemini capsule would be launched atop a missile designed to lob nuclear bombs across the planet. The military Titan II missile became operational in 1963, and was capable of carrying one Mk/B53 nuclear warhead of 9 megatons of explosive power.
The modified Titan II launched 12 Gemini spacecraft between 1964 and 1967.
Gemini astronauts were alotted 2,500 calories per day. Most of the food was dehydrated, with 99 percent of the water removed to save weight. Gemini 3 was the first mission where astronauts were given solid food.  On Mercury flights, puréed food was supplied in foil tubes. To prepare the Gemini food, astronauts would inject cold water into the packets. Hot meals would not be available until the Apollo missions.
To prepare for Apollo flights to the moon, astronauts practiced matching orbit and speed with another spacecraft, a process called rendezvous. An unmanned rocket, the Agena, was launched as a target for several Gemini flights. Gemini 8, piloted by Neil Armstrong and Dave Scott, nearly ended in disaster when a malfunction during docking caused their Gemini to spin out of control.
When the Gemini 6 mission was called off due to failure of the Agena target vehicle, a joint mission with Gemini 7 was held instead. Frank Borman and Jim Lovell, conducting a 14-day endurance mission aboard Gemini 7, were briefly visited by Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford in Gemini 6.
Five astronauts conducted a total of nine spacewalks during the Gemini program. The first was Ed White’s 20-minute walk on Gemini 4, coming three months after Alexei Leonov’s historic first-ever spacewalk in March 1965.
Buzz Aldrin held the record for most spacewalks on a Gemini flight, with a total of three spacewalks  spread over 5.5 hours on Gemini 12.
To aid with spacewalking, Ed White carried a compressed-gas gun. This provided only 20 seconds or so of thrust. An elaborate jetpack, called the Maneuvering Unit, was carried on Gemini 9 but not tried because astronaut Gene Cernan’s overexertion caused him to terminate the spacewalk early. Similar jetpacks were finally tested in space in the 1980s.
Although NASA only meant for the Gemini spacecraft to be used until the bigger and more capable Apollo was ready to fly, aerospace manufacturer McDonnell saw a brighter future for Gemini.
Proposed missions included Geminis adapted to work with the Air Force’s MOLAB manned surveillance station. Military Geminis were nicknamed “Blue Gemini.” MOLAB and Blue Gemini never flew.
As a backup or supplement to Apollo moon missions, a Gemini beefed up to handle lunar orbit flights was designed. Unfortunately for McDonnell, NASA chose instead to focus all its efforts on readying the Apollo spacecraft for moon-landing missions.

[click here to enlarge infographic]

Facts about the two-man Gemini spacecraft.
Source All about our solar system, outer space and exploration.


Click here for Historical Infographic Post Listing

>>>>> Scroll down to view and make comments <<<<<<

Make a Comment

Econintersect wants your comments, data and opinion on the articles posted. You can also comment using Facebook directly using he comment block below.

Econintersect Infographics

Print this page or create a PDF file of this page
Print Friendly and PDF

The growing use of ad blocking software is creating a shortfall in covering our fixed expenses. Please consider a donation to Econintersect to allow continuing output of quality and balanced financial and economic news and analysis.

Keep up with economic news using our dynamic economic newspapers with the largest international coverage on the internet
Asia / Pacific
Middle East / Africa
USA Government

 navigate econintersect .com


Analysis Blog
News Blog
Investing Blog
Opinion Blog
Precious Metals Blog
Markets Blog
Video of the Day


Asia / Pacific
Middle East / Africa
USA Government

RSS Feeds / Social Media

Combined Econintersect Feed

Free Newsletter

Marketplace - Books & More

Economic Forecast

Content Contribution



  Top Economics Site Contributor TalkMarkets Contributor Finance Blogs Free PageRank Checker Active Search Results Google+

This Web Page by Steven Hansen ---- Copyright 2010 - 2018 Econintersect LLC - all rights reserved