econintersect.com
       
  

FREE NEWSLETTER: Econintersect sends a nightly newsletter highlighting news events of the day, and providing a summary of new articles posted on the website. Econintersect will not sell or pass your email address to others per our privacy policy. You can cancel this subscription at any time by selecting the unsubscribing link in the footer of each email.



posted on 29 June 2015

Infographic Of The Day: How NASA's Gemini Spacecraft Worked

To follow the successful series of Mercury flights, NASA planned the Gemini spacecraft for the mid-1960s.

Gemini’s goals were to test astronauts on long-duration Earth orbit flights; to practice orbital rendezvous and docking, which was a requirement for moon landing missions; and to practice re-entry and landing.
 
Of the 18.5-foot (5.61 meters) Gemini spacecraft, only the conical re-entry module would return to Earth. The 90-cubic-foot (2.55 cubic meters) pressure vessel would be home for two astronauts for up to 14 days.
 
Like Mercury, the Gemini capsule would be launched atop a missile designed to lob nuclear bombs across the planet. The military Titan II missile became operational in 1963, and was capable of carrying one Mk/B53 nuclear warhead of 9 megatons of explosive power.
 
The modified Titan II launched 12 Gemini spacecraft between 1964 and 1967.
 
Gemini astronauts were alotted 2,500 calories per day. Most of the food was dehydrated, with 99 percent of the water removed to save weight. Gemini 3 was the first mission where astronauts were given solid food.  On Mercury flights, puréed food was supplied in foil tubes. To prepare the Gemini food, astronauts would inject cold water into the packets. Hot meals would not be available until the Apollo missions.
 
To prepare for Apollo flights to the moon, astronauts practiced matching orbit and speed with another spacecraft, a process called rendezvous. An unmanned rocket, the Agena, was launched as a target for several Gemini flights. Gemini 8, piloted by Neil Armstrong and Dave Scott, nearly ended in disaster when a malfunction during docking caused their Gemini to spin out of control.
 
When the Gemini 6 mission was called off due to failure of the Agena target vehicle, a joint mission with Gemini 7 was held instead. Frank Borman and Jim Lovell, conducting a 14-day endurance mission aboard Gemini 7, were briefly visited by Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford in Gemini 6.
 
Five astronauts conducted a total of nine spacewalks during the Gemini program. The first was Ed White’s 20-minute walk on Gemini 4, coming three months after Alexei Leonov’s historic first-ever spacewalk in March 1965.
 
Buzz Aldrin held the record for most spacewalks on a Gemini flight, with a total of three spacewalks  spread over 5.5 hours on Gemini 12.
 
To aid with spacewalking, Ed White carried a compressed-gas gun. This provided only 20 seconds or so of thrust. An elaborate jetpack, called the Maneuvering Unit, was carried on Gemini 9 but not tried because astronaut Gene Cernan’s overexertion caused him to terminate the spacewalk early. Similar jetpacks were finally tested in space in the 1980s.
 
Although NASA only meant for the Gemini spacecraft to be used until the bigger and more capable Apollo was ready to fly, aerospace manufacturer McDonnell saw a brighter future for Gemini.
 
Proposed missions included Geminis adapted to work with the Air Force’s MOLAB manned surveillance station. Military Geminis were nicknamed “Blue Gemini.” MOLAB and Blue Gemini never flew.
 
As a backup or supplement to Apollo moon missions, a Gemini beefed up to handle lunar orbit flights was designed. Unfortunately for McDonnell, NASA chose instead to focus all its efforts on readying the Apollo spacecraft for moon-landing missions.

[click here to enlarge infographic]

Facts about the two-man Gemini spacecraft.
Source SPACE.com: All about our solar system, outer space and exploration.

Source: http://www.space.com/29549-how-nasa-gemini-spacecraft-worked-infographic.html

Click here for Historical Infographic Post Listing



>>>>> Scroll down to view and make comments <<<<<<










Make a Comment

Econintersect wants your comments, data and opinion on the articles posted.  As the internet is a "war zone" of trolls, hackers and spammers - Econintersect must balance its defences against ease of commenting.  We have joined with Livefyre to manage our comment streams.

To comment, using Livefyre just click the "Sign In" button at the top-left corner of the comment box below. You can create a commenting account using your favorite social network such as Twitter, Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn or Open ID - or open a Livefyre account using your email address.



You can also comment using Facebook directly using he comment block below.





Econintersect Infographics


search_box

Print this page or create a PDF file of this page
Print Friendly and PDF


The growing use of ad blocking software is creating a shortfall in covering our fixed expenses. Please consider a donation to Econintersect to allow continuing output of quality and balanced financial and economic news and analysis.


Take a look at what is going on inside of Econintersect.com
Main Home
Analysis Blog
Joan Robinson’s Critique of Marginal Utility Theory
The Truth About Trade Agreements - and Why We Need Them
News Blog
Most Coup Attempts In Recent Years Have Failed
The Global Cost Of Diabetes
The Universities Churning Out The Most Billionaires
Five Amazing Ways Plants Have Created New Technologies
Where U.S. Weekly Wages Go The Furthest
What We Read Today 09 December 2016
How To Stop Using Filler Words Like Um And Uh
02 December 2016: ECRI's WLI Growth Index Improvement Continues
Preliminary December 2016 Michigan Consumer Sentiment Highest Since Early 2015
October 2016 Wholesale Sales Improved
Rail Week Ending 03 December 2016: Finally A Positive Month
November 2016 CBO Monthly Budget Review: Total Receipts Up by 1 Percent in the First Two Months of Fiscal Year 2017
Infographic Of The Day: Copyright - Illegal Download
Investing Blog
The New Art Of Utility Investing
Investing,com Weekly Wrap-up 09 December 2016
Opinion Blog
Trickle-down Economics, Trump Edition
Looking At Everything: Trump's $1 Trillion Infrastructure Plan
Precious Metals Blog
Silver Prices Rebounded Today: Where They Are Headed
Live Markets
09Dec2016 Market Close: Wall Street Closes On A New High, Trump Sugar High, Crude Prices Testing Resistance, US Dollar Melts Higher
Amazon Books & More






.... and keep up with economic news using our dynamic economic newspapers with the largest international coverage on the internet
Asia / Pacific
Europe
Middle East / Africa
Americas
USA Government



Crowdfunding ....






























 navigate econintersect.com

Blogs

Analysis Blog
News Blog
Investing Blog
Opinion Blog
Precious Metals Blog
Markets Blog
Video of the Day
Weather

Newspapers

Asia / Pacific
Europe
Middle East / Africa
Americas
USA Government
     

RSS Feeds / Social Media

Combined Econintersect Feed
Google+
Facebook
Twitter
Digg

Free Newsletter

Marketplace - Books & More

Economic Forecast

Content Contribution

Contact

About

  Top Economics Site

Investing.com Contributor TalkMarkets Contributor Finance Blogs Free PageRank Checker Active Search Results Google+

This Web Page by Steven Hansen ---- Copyright 2010 - 2016 Econintersect LLC - all rights reserved