econintersect.com
       
  

FREE NEWSLETTER: Econintersect sends a nightly newsletter highlighting news events of the day, and providing a summary of new articles posted on the website. Econintersect will not sell or pass your email address to others per our privacy policy. You can cancel this subscription at any time by selecting the unsubscribing link in the footer of each email.



posted on 17 July 2017

Clever Crows Can Plan For The Future Like Humans Do

from The Conversation

-- this post authored by Markus Boeckle and Professor Nicky Clayton, University of Cambridge

Humans aren’t as unique as we used to think. Not, at least when it comes to making plans for the future. Scientists originally thought humans were the only animals that made plans but, over the past decade, studies on non-human primates and the crow family have challenged this perspective.


Please share this article - Go to very top of page, right hand side, for social media buttons.


For example, we’ve seen that these animals are able to store tools for later use, cache food in places where it will be needed the most, and hide pieces of the sort of food they know will be running low in the future.

In all these studies, the animals had to consider what to do, where to do it and when to prepare for certain specific future events. The latest research shows that ravens can indeed anticipate the “what, where and when" of a future event on the basis of previous experiences. But unlike the previous studies, this work tested the birds in behaviour they don’t normally show in the wild. This provides evidence that they have a much more general ability to plan for the future than previously thought.

Food hoarding is common in members of the crow family (corvids) because they often eat from perishable animal carcasses, which provide lots of food but are only available for a short amount of time. To create a suitable cache of food they need to work out what to store, where to put it and when to do so.

from www.shutterstock.com

The new study, published in the journal Science, tested the birds outside this naturally occurring behaviour, which may have evolved specifically because it gives crows a survival advantage. Some crow species are known to naturally use tools to retrieve food. So the researchers tested whether the birds could store and retrieve a tool so they could get at their food after a gap of 17 hours - something we wouldn’t expect them to do naturally. The scientists didn’t give the birds a chance to learn this behaviour first but they were still able to instantly select the tool out of a number of unnecessary items.

In another experiment, the researchers taught ravens to select a token from a number of items that they could then exchange for food. Again, the birds then showed that they could plan for the future using this new behaviour. They were able to store this token and then retrieve and use it when they were offered the chance to exchange it for food 17 hours later.

This contrasts with all of the previous studies in future planning, which have focused on naturally occurring behaviour. For example, we know that California scrub jays cache their food according to their future needs. And that bonobos, chimpanzees and orangutans select, transport and save appropriate tools for future needs.

General intelligence

These studies have shown that animals can plan for the future - but they left an important question open for debate. Are animals only able to plan to use abilities that have evolved to give them a specific advantage, or can they flexibly and intelligently apply planning behaviour across various actions? Most critics would say the former, as the animals were tested in naturally occurring behaviours.

But the new research provides the first compelling evidence that animal species can plan for the future using behaviour that doesn’t typically occur in nature. This supports the view that at least some cognitive abilities in animals don’t evolve just in response to specific problems. Instead, it suggests that animals can apply these behaviours flexibly across problems in a similar way to humans.

It seems that, in corvids and apes, intelligence is not a system to solve a predefined set of problems (dedicated intelligence) but rather a computational system to improvise new solutions (improvisational intelligence). But it is still unclear what this cognitive system exactly is and how it evolved.

The ConversationWhat’s needed now is neuro-biological evidence of general intelligence in animals. We also need to investigate how flexible and improvisational behaviour evolved. Then we might be able to see how crows’ ability to plan for the future fits in with their broader cognitive powers.

Markus Boeckle, Postdoctoral research associate, University of Cambridge and Professor Nicky Clayton, Professor in Comparative Cognition, University of Cambridge

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

>>>>> Scroll down to view and make comments <<<<<<

Click here for Historical News Post Listing










Make a Comment

Econintersect wants your comments, data and opinion on the articles posted. You can also comment using Facebook directly using he comment block below.




Econintersect Contributors








search_box
Print this page or create a PDF file of this page
Print Friendly and PDF


The growing use of ad blocking software is creating a shortfall in covering our fixed expenses. Please consider a donation to Econintersect to allow continuing output of quality and balanced financial and economic news and analysis.







Keep up with economic news using our dynamic economic newspapers with the largest international coverage on the internet
Asia / Pacific
Europe
Middle East / Africa
Americas
USA Government





























 navigate econintersect.com

Blogs

Analysis Blog
News Blog
Investing Blog
Opinion Blog
Precious Metals Blog
Markets Blog
Video of the Day
Weather

Newspapers

Asia / Pacific
Europe
Middle East / Africa
Americas
USA Government
     

RSS Feeds / Social Media

Combined Econintersect Feed
Google+
Facebook
Twitter
Digg

Free Newsletter

Marketplace - Books & More

Economic Forecast

Content Contribution

Contact

About

  Top Economics Site

Investing.com Contributor TalkMarkets Contributor Finance Blogs Free PageRank Checker Active Search Results Google+

This Web Page by Steven Hansen ---- Copyright 2010 - 2017 Econintersect LLC - all rights reserved