FREE NEWSLETTER: Econintersect sends a nightly newsletter highlighting news events of the day, and providing a summary of new articles posted on the website. Econintersect will not sell or pass your email address to others per our privacy policy. You can cancel this subscription at any time by selecting the unsubscribing link in the footer of each email.

posted on 02 November 2016

Six Different Ways To Think About 'Extinction'

from The Conversation

-- this post authored by Paul Jepson, and Richard Ladle, University of Oxford

The WWF’s new Living Planet report highlights a 58% decline in the abundance of 3,706 animal species since 1970, reinforcing the fear that humanity is bringing about a sixth mass extinction.

The roots of this fear stretch back more than a century, when a series of well-publicised extinctions provided incontrovertible evidence that human actions could wipe out other life forms, even superabundant ones such as the passenger pigeon. These extinctions had a profound influence, and saving species has been a fundamental tenet of conservation ever since.

What is less widely appreciated is that contemporary usage of the term extinction encompasses a wide variety of meanings and applications, each with a distinct role in conservation advocacy. In a 2008 paper we classified several different types of “extinctions" to better understand the rhetorical power of each, and to ask whether they reinforce or undermine conservation communication. Here’s an updated version of our list:

True extinction is well summarised by the IUCN definition that there is “no reasonable doubt that the last individual [of the species] has died". This category includes many iconic species such as the dodo, passenger pigeon, great auk and Steller’s sea cow. Here, extinction only refers to species that we know of: if not, how could the fate of a last individual be ascertained?

Twice the size of a manatee, the Steller’s sea cow was hunted to extinction in the 1700s. Biodiversity Heritage Library, CC BY

Ecological extinction is where a species only survives in zoos and private collections. The Scimitar oryx, Spix’s macaw and the pheasant-like Alagoas currasow all fall into this category and are classed by the IUCN as “extinct in the wild".

Local extinction refers to when a species has been wiped out from part of its range. The beaver is a good example. Once common, it had been hunted to extinction in the UK by the 16th century but many people are now working to bring them back.

Wallacean extinction is named after Alfred Russel Wallace, a contemporary of Charles Darwin who independently developed a theory of natural selection. It refers to species that are erroneously classed as extinct due to our ignorance of where they actually live - that is, species that are “lost" rather than extinct. The most famous example is the coelacanth, which was classed as an extinct fossil fish until a living specimen was found in 1938 off the east coast of South Africa. These rediscoveries are a continued source of hope for people trying to find animals like the Tasmanian tiger or the ivory-billed woodpecker.

Coelacanths were once thought to have gone extinct 66m years ago. smerikal, CC BY-SA

Linnaean extinctions, named after Carl Linnaeus who invented the system of scientific species names, involve the large discrepancy between the number of species described and the likely number out there. Here, extinctions are extrapolated from the rate of habitat loss for known and undiscovered species. This type of extinction underpins widely used estimates of tens of thousands of extinctions per year.

Lazarus extinction refers to cases where there is still hope of resurrection because DNA of extinct species lives on in domestic breeds and a “replica" species could be recreated though back breeding. De-domestication is a component of European rewilding. Herds of wild cattle resembling the extinct Auroch in looks and ecology are being established in natural areas in the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Croatia, the Czech Republic and Romania.

Aurochs, the ancestor of domestic cattle, went extinct in the 17th century. Prof saxx / French Ministry of Culture, CC BY-SA

Closely related to Lazarus extinctions is the concept of de-extinction, the idea that advances in synthetic biology will eventually allow us to extract DNA from the preserved remains of extinct species and insert them into the eggs of surrogate animals. An elephant with mammoth-like traits may well be born within the next 20 years.

Some ‘extinctions’ have more impact than others

Extinction is forever" was a rallying cry of the conservation movement during the 1960s and 1970s. Images of gorillas, tigers and rhino made extinction feel real and meaningful and reminded people of the sense of collective loss and remorse they would feel if these species died out.

Fast forward several decades and individual species no longer have such an impact. In September 2016, for instance, the death of the last Rabb’s fringed-limbed tree frog passed with little media comment.

Since the 1990s conservation rhetoric has focused on the zoomed-out, planetary-scale Linnaean extinctions. Conservation International’s extinction clock presents the end of a species as a routine and impersonal event happening every 20 minutes. Why should one extinction be newsworthy if more than 26,000 are happening each year?

Nevertheless, it was the specter of mass extinctions that grabbed the attention of policymakers. While they may not have shed any tears for an individual tree frog species, they rightly feared the loss of economically valuable ecosystem services. Governments responded with a massive and systematic expansion of protected areas internationally. However, the impact of “sixth mass extinctions" and other doom and gloom rhetoric may be on the wane, especially since the 2007 global economic crisis.

Beavers back to Britain? Rudmer Zwerver / shutterstock

A different tack might be needed: one that repersonalizes extinction and balances stories of loss with stories of hope. This could be achieved by bringing local and Lazarus extinctions to the fore. Both of these can be tied to reintroduction projects that offer an optimistic sense that humanity can make amends for the ills it has inflicted on other life forms.

We need to match reports of alarming declines in species with reports analyzing places where populations can be restored. The idea that “extinction" is in some cases reversible certainly supports the new practice of ecosystem restoration. If conservation is to regain the initiative it needs to both protect what’s left, and restore what is lost.

The ConversationPaul Jepson, Course Director, MSc Biodiversity, Conservation and Management, University of Oxford and Richard Ladle, Senior Research Associate, University of Oxford

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

>>>>> Scroll down to view and make comments <<<<<<

Click here for Historical News Post Listing

Make a Comment

Econintersect wants your comments, data and opinion on the articles posted.  As the internet is a "war zone" of trolls, hackers and spammers - Econintersect must balance its defences against ease of commenting.  We have joined with Livefyre to manage our comment streams.

To comment, using Livefyre just click the "Sign In" button at the top-left corner of the comment box below. You can create a commenting account using your favorite social network such as Twitter, Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn or Open ID - or open a Livefyre account using your email address.

You can also comment using Facebook directly using he comment block below.

Econintersect Contributors


Print this page or create a PDF file of this page
Print Friendly and PDF

The growing use of ad blocking software is creating a shortfall in covering our fixed expenses. Please consider a donation to Econintersect to allow continuing output of quality and balanced financial and economic news and analysis.

Take a look at what is going on inside of
Main Home
Analysis Blog
Minsky’s Theory of Asset Prices: Why Minsky Was NOT a Neo-Monetarist
Finance and Growth: The Direction of Causality
News Blog
Early Headlines: Asia Stocks Mixed, Oil Up, Dollar Down, China GDP On Target, GOP Govs Defend Medicaid Expans., Trump Wants To Cut Fed. Spending By $ 1 Trn, Trump's Troubling Foreign Deals And More
The Fake News That Sealed The Fate Of Antony And Cleopatra
The Jobs With The Biggest Cash Bonuses
Astronomers Spot Strange, Bow-like Structure In Venus' Atmosphere
Raising A Child Is An Extremely Expensive Undertaking
The World's Staggering Wealth Divide
What We Read Today 19 January 2017
OK Go - The One Moment - Official Video
January 2017 Philly Fed Manufacturing Survey Significantly Improves and Remains In Expansion.
December 2016 Residential Building Sector Mixed
14 January 2017 Initial Unemployment Claims Rolling Average Improvement Continues
Stock Market Bull Faces Important Test
Infographic Of The Day: Movies That Struck Oil
Investing Blog
How To Invest In Oil For Long-term Investors Technical Summary 19 January 2017
Opinion Blog
What Is The Natural Interest Rate - And What If We Go Above It?
A New Deal With Capitalism Requires A Revolution In Politics And Markets
Precious Metals Blog
Four Catalysts Drive Gold And Silver For 2017
Live Markets
19Jan2017 Market Close: Wall Street Closes Down Fractionally On Lackluster Investor Participation Ahead Of Tomorrow's Presidential Inauguration, George Soros Said That Global Markets Will Falter
Amazon Books & More

.... and keep up with economic news using our dynamic economic newspapers with the largest international coverage on the internet
Asia / Pacific
Middle East / Africa
USA Government



Analysis Blog
News Blog
Investing Blog
Opinion Blog
Precious Metals Blog
Markets Blog
Video of the Day


Asia / Pacific
Middle East / Africa
USA Government

RSS Feeds / Social Media

Combined Econintersect Feed

Free Newsletter

Marketplace - Books & More

Economic Forecast

Content Contribution



  Top Economics Site Contributor TalkMarkets Contributor Finance Blogs Free PageRank Checker Active Search Results Google+

This Web Page by Steven Hansen ---- Copyright 2010 - 2017 Econintersect LLC - all rights reserved