An outpost on the Earth’s moon has been a staple of science fiction since the 20th century. One of the earliest practical proposals was the U.S. Army’s 1959 design for a nuclear powered fortress, built to establish a military presence on the moon before the Soviet Union could do the same. A 1961 U.S. Air Force plan called for a 21-man underground lunar base, to be built by 1968.
One prime location for a moon base would be in the permanently shadowed deep craters near the moon's poles. These very cold locations harbor vast quantities of water ice, which could be harvested relatively easily.
The basic necessities for human life — air and water — could be derived from the lunar soil. Building materials, rocket fuel and other necessities could also be manufactured. These materials could be used by the astronauts on the moon or shot into space electromagnetically by a "mass driver."
Current arguments for establishing a lunar colony include these potential uses:
• Resource mining (oxygen, rocket fuel, construction materials)
• Energy (solar power, helium 3 mining for nuclear fusion)
• Astronomical observations from the moon's far side
Sophisticated robots could prepare the landing site prior to the arrival of astronauts. 3D-printed structures could be formed from the lunar soil itself. A moon base must support its crew, either with supplies launched from Earth or by mining the resources of the moon itself.